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Biology words A-C

1st semester words for every biology student

QuestionAnswer
Acid a solution containing hydrogen that reacts with bases...Has a pH of less than 7... has a sour taste
Adaptation An inherited trait ( structure, behavior , or body process) shared by a population that allows them to survive and reproduce more successfully in their environment ( a result of natural selection)
Aerobic uses oxygen
Allele alternate versions of genes...they are generally dominant or recessive and respresented by capital or lowercase letters (example T= tongue roller t= non tongue roller)
Amino acid building block ( monomer) of a protein
Anaerobic does not use oxygen
Atom smallest unit of matter... made of protons, neutrons, and electrons
ATP ( Adenosine Triphosphate) the molecule of energy for the cell that is made during the process of cellular respiration
Autosome the first 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes in a human body cell ( somatic cell) ... they do not control the sex of an organism but control many other traits
Base Solution which contains a low hydrogen concentration(less than pure water)it may have a high hydroxide (OH-)concentration...Reacts with acids, feels slippery, pH more than 7
Biology Science of life ( bio= life logos= study) studies the origins of life, history of life, interactions of organisms , structure and function of organisms.... HUMANS HAVE ROLE IN PRESERVING ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINING LIFE
(Biological) Macromolecule ... Polymer, ( also see macromolecule) includes monomers of various macromolecules Large carbon containing ( organic) molecules formed by joining smaller organic molecules called monomers...4 categories are carbohydrates ( monosaccharides) lipids ( various types and monomers), proteins ( amino acids), nucleic acids ( nucleotides )
Biosphere zone or layers on earth including air (atmosphere),land ( lithosphere), and water ( hydrosphere) where organisms exist...global sum of all ecosystems ( collection of biomes)..relatively thin zone in which life is concentrated
Carbohydrate group of organic molecues ( with carbon) including sugars, starch and cellulose. They contain hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as water (2:1) and typically can be bbroken down to release energy
Carrier Is a heterozygous organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease... Other ways this term is used.. a type of protein and transports electrons
Cell Smallest unit of structure and function in an organism(often called building blocks of life) typically microscopic and consiting of cytoplasm, genetic material, and ribosomes
Cellular Respiration Metabolic process in all organisms that converts chemical energy from nutrients into ATP(usable energy for cells)also releasing waste products like carbon dioxide
Chemical Reaction process that involves rearrangement of atoms to form a new substance..Reactants are rearranged into products. Photosyntheis and cellular respiration are two of these that are crucial for life
Chlorophyll green pigment found in chloroplasts of plants and algae and in cells of photosynthetic bacteria that is involved in absorbing light energy for photosynthesis
Chloroplast green organelle in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. the green pigment found in this structure traps light during photosynthesis
Chromosome DNA containing structure in cellular organisms ( visible during cell division) that are located in the nucleus of eukaryotes, are usually ring shaped in prokaryotes and contain most of the genes of the organism ... ALSO genetic material of a virus
Codon sequence of 3 adjacent DNA or RNA nucleotides that correspond with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis..In mRNA the codon corresponds with an anticodon on the tRNA to specify the sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis
Created by: shemehl