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LC Biology chapter 3


nutrition how organisms obtain and use food
metabolism sum of all the chemical reactions in an organism, catagories - anabolism, catabolism
continuity of life way in which organisms arise from other organisms of the same type
6 constituents of food carbohydrates, vitamins, lipids, proteins, minerals, water
carbohydrates biomolecule, Cx(H2 O)y
biomolecules organic chemicals produced and found only in living organisms, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins
monosaccharides simplest type of carbohydrate 'one sugar unit', C6 H12 O6, sweet taste, soluble in water, energy source
disaccharides 2 monosaccharides covalently combined C12 H22 O11, sweet taste, soluble in water, energy source
6 common elements present in living organisms carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
5 elements present in living organisms as dissolved salts sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium
trace elements only needed by organisms in very small amounts, iron, copper, zinc
reducing sugar any sugar that has ability to add electrons to another atom/molecule
Benedict's reagent blue->orange/brick red when heated in presence of reducing sugar
polysaccharides long chains of monosaccharides (usual glucose) covalently combined (C6 H10 O5)n
lipids fats and oils, made from carbon, hydrogen, (oxygen)
triglycerides lipids made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids, storing energy, protect organs
phospholipids lipids made from 1 glycerol 2 fatty acids, and 1 phosphate molecule, double layer cell membrane, transfer signals into cell
test for fat brown paper turns translucent when absorbs fat molecules
protein CHON+(sulfur, phosphorus) combine to form amino acids, fibrous globular
amino acids chon + sulfur, phosphorus, make up proteins, sequence determines type of protein, bonded by peptide bonds
fibrous protein long, straight chains of amino acids, very little folding, stuctural functions collagen, skeletal muscle, keratin
globular protein long chains amino acids, lots of folding, metabolic functions, haemoglobin, enzymes, antibodies, hormones
test for protein (biuret test) copper sulfate solution and sodium hydroxide will turn purple in presence of peptide bond
vitamin needed is small amounts cause cant make it, made in plants, passed along food chain,lack of vitamins causes deficiencys, CHO, but ebery composition different
fat soluble v found only in food that contains fat
water soluble v found in wide variety of foods
fat soluble vitamin vitamin A (retinol), night blindness, formation of rhodopsin (pigment in eye), cod liver oil, butter, margerine
water soluble vitamin vitamin c (ascorbic acid), scurvy, formation of collagen, citrus fruits
dietary minerals metallic elements required on daily basis
plants dietary minerals calcium - formation of middle lamella ( cement that holds plant cell walls together) magnesium - formation of chlorophyll (green pigment)
animal dietary minerals calcium - formation of bones and teeth iron - formation of haemoglobin
water medium in which metabolism occurs, excellent solvent, hydrolysis reactions, condensation reactions, transporting stuff around cells, high SHC
hydrolysis reaction occurs in digestion, water, with enzymes, breaks bonds between carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water used up, monomers formed
condensation reaction (polymerisation) occurs when carbohydrates, lipids, proteins are reassembled in cells, water lost, polymers being made
anabolism building large molecs from small ones using energy ex. photosynthesis, protein synthesis
catabolism breaking large molecs into small using energy ex. respiration, digestion
Created by: Aine Murphy
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