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Chemistry in Biology

Basic chemistry terms in chapter two

Atoms The smallest functional unit of an element that remains all the properties of that element
Protons Positive particles found in the nucleus
Neutrons Neutrally charged particles found in the nucleus
Electrons Negatively charged particles found in the orbitals
Orbital Area of an atom in which the probability of an electron is high
S-orbitals spherical; 'first' layer of an atom and has a maximum number of eight electrons
P-orbitals propeller or dumbbell shaped
Atomic Mass indicates an atoms mass relative to the mass of other atoms; number of protons and neutrons
Isotopes multiple forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom
Molecule Two or more atoms bonded together
Molecular Formula Contains chemical symbols of elements found in a molecule with subscript indicating how many of each atom are present
Compound Molecule composed of two or more elements
Three types of Bonds Covalent (polar and nonpolar), hydrogen, and ionic.
Covalent involves atoms that share a pair of electrons
Hydrogen bonds form when a hydrogen atom from one polar molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom in another polar molecule
Ionic Bonds occur when a cation binds to an anion
Cations Net positive charge
Anions Net negative charge
Ionic Bonds An atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons
Chemical Equilibrium The state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.
Solvent Liquid
Solute Substances that dissolve in solvent
Hydrophilic Molecules that are water loving
Hydrophobic Molecules that are water fearing
Amphipathic Molecules that have both polar/ionized and nonpolar regions that form micelles (hydrophobic spheres) in water
Concentration Amount of a solute dissolved in a unit volume of solution
Molarity Number of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 Liter of water
Cohesion Attraction between water molecules
Adhesion Attraction between water molecules and surrounding molecules
Created by: ERD2015