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General Biology Info

Beginning of basic biology terms Chapter One

What is biology? The study of life.
Why is it important to study life? 1)to better understand the functions of our own bodies 2)to better understand the ecosystems 3) to make new scientific discoveries.
Three parts of the cell theory. 1)all organisms are made of cells 2)cells are the smallest units of life 3)cell come from pre-existing cells.
Define homeostasis Maintenance of stable internal conditions
What is the difference between growth and development? Growth is the increase in cell size/number, and development is the increase in complexity.
How is energy used for metabolism? Energy is used in chemical reactions collectively.
Seven hierarchies of life. Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organs, tissue, organelle, molecule, and atom.
Define biosphere. All the places on Earth where life exists
Define ecosystem a community of organisms in their physical environment
Define community All the species coexisting in a given area
Define population All the organisms
Define Organism Exhibits the characteristics of life
Define organ Composed of two or more types of tissue
Define tissue Composed of specialized cells of a certain type
Define Organelle Membrane-enclosed part of a cell with a specific function
Define molecule Consists of atoms bonded together
What elements is the human body composed of? Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen
DNA the heritable information that directs the cells activities
Genes Segments of DNA that have a specific function and transmit characteristics from parent to offspring
Define a prokaryotic cell. Lack membrane-bound organelles and do not have DNA held in the nucleus
Define an eukaryotic cell. Have a membrane-bound organelles and DNA in a nucleus.
What is taxonomy. The branch of biology that names and classifies species into a hierarchical order.
Taxonomy is comprised of domains. What is a domain? The broadest units of classification in this system
The species name of an organism, contains both its genus and species placement, giving the name two parts. Binomial Nomenclature.
Domain bacteria Found in many common, temperate environments
Domain archaea Ancient bacteria found in extreme environments
Domain eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms; kingdom plantae, fungi, protists, and animalia
Two mechanisms of evolutionary change Vertical and horizontal descent
Vertical descent New species evolve from pre-existing species by accumulation of mutations
Natural Selection Individuals with advantageous mutations are able to survive and reproduce
Horizontal gene transfer Genetic exchange between different species
Genome The complete genetic makeup of an organism
Genomics Involves techniques used to analyze the DNA sequences in genomes
Proteome The complete set of proteins that a cell or organism can make
Proteomics Involves techniques used to analyze the proteome of a single species and compare the proteomes of different species
Reductionism Involves reducing complex systems to simpler components that are easier to study
Systems biology Seeks to create models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
Discovery Science Describes nature through careful observation and data analysis
Hypothesis-based science Explains nature; involves the proposing and testing of a hypothesis
Quantitative data Numerical measurements
Qualitative Recorded descriptions
Created by: ERD2015