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QEA GENETICS

ConceptDefinition
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. Compare with meiosis.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Gene segment of repeating nucleotides in DNA that codes for a trait
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. Also called allelomorph.
Dominant Trait a trait that appears over a recessive form when both are present
Recessive trait a trait that doesn't appear unless the dominant trait is absent
Homozygous two identical alleles (HH or hh)
Heterozygous two non identical alleles (Hh)
Carrier an individual who has an allele for a recessive trait, but does not express it because a dominant one overrules it (Cc is a carrier of Cystic Fibrosis, a recessive condition)
Genotype Genetic make up of a trait (RR, Rr, or rr)
Phonotype Physical appearance of a trait (round or wrinkled)
Punnet Square it is a diagram that is used to predict the outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
pedigree the background or history of a person or thing, especially as conferring distinction or quality.
Co-dominance both alleles show dominance in true form (red plus white =splotchy red and white)
Incomplete dominance neither allele is completely dominant over the other, so they blend together (red plus white = pink)
Sex-linked trait trait corried on the X chromosome, which causes the trait to appear most often in males when the Y chromosome is incapable of showing dominance over the trait
Nondisjunction occurs when chromosomes fails to separate, causing serious genetic disorders
Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) occurs when an individual has 3 chromosomes on the 21st pair instead of 2, caused by NONDISJUNCTION
Independent Assortment law that states that alleles can appear in any combination regardless of other traits present
Created by: carvajalh