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Biology EOC Day 1

Cell Structure and Function/ Organism Growth and Cell Differentiation

Active Transport the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy
Respiration a process in living organisms involving the production of energy, typically with the intake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) the principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells
Concentration Gradient the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles.
Endoplasmic Reticulum a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
mRNA carries a portion of the DNA code to other parts of the cell for processing
Synthesis The production of an organic compound in a living thing, especially as aided by enzymes
Thymine a compound that is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA.
Golgi Apparatus a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
Lysosome an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane
Mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
Nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
Organelle any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
Plasma Membrane a microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins that forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole, and that regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm.
Plastid any of a class of small organelles, such as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of plant cells, containing pigment or food.
Ribosome a particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.
Vacuole a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
Bacteriophage a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it.
Capsid the protein shell of a virus
DNA Viruses a virus in which the genetic information is stored in the form of DNA (as opposed to RNA).
Genetic Material The material used to store genetic information in the nuclei or mitochondria of an organism's cells; either DNA or RNA
Hosts an organism that harbors a parasitic, a mutual, or a commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter
Immune Cells Any of various cells that in adult mammals are produced in bone marrow, have a nucleus but no hemoglobin, and function in the immune system by protecting against pathogens and aiding in tissue repair
Lysogenic Cycle characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm
Lytic Cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane.
Pathogen Prion causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) which are neurodegenerative diseases in mammals
Retrovirus Any of a group of RNA viruses whose RNA is used as a template inside a host cell for the formation of DNA by means of the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The DNA thus formed is inserted into the host cell's genome
T-Cell A type of white blood cell that functions in cell-mediated immunity
Viral Reproduction the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells
Virus a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms
Cell the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently
Genomes includes both the genes (the coding regions), the noncoding DNA and the genetic material of the mitochondria and chloroplasts
Immune System a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease
Mitosis The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes
Reproductive Cycle The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes
Anaphase the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.
Cell Cycle the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells
Centriole a small, cylindrical cell organelle, seen near the nucleus in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, that divides in perpendicular fashion during mitosis
Centromere the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach, via the kinetochore, during cell division
Chromatid each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA
Chromosome a long, stringy aggregate of genes that carries heredity information and is formed from condensed chromatin
Cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
Daughter Cell Either of the two cells formed when a cell undergoes cell division by mitosis
Diploid Having two sets of chromosomes or double the haploid number of chromosomes in the germ cell
Interphase the resting phase between successive mitotic divisions of a cell, or between the first and second divisions of meiosis.
Metaphase a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage
Prophase the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes
Spindle Fibers form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell
Transcription the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA)
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) a type of macromolecule known as a nucleic acid. It is shaped like a twisted double helix and is composed of long strands of alternating sugars and phosphate groups, along with nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine)
Created by: garrett0852



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