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Microbiology Vocab

Vocabulary assignment - Biology 11

TermDefinition
Antigen a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Host Cell A cell that harbors foreign molecules, viruses, or microorganisms. For example, a cell being host to a virus.
lymphocyte The white blood cell of the blood derived from the stem cells of the lymphoid series of vertebrates
lysogenic cycle One of the ways of virus reproduction. Bacteriophage's nucleic acid fuses together with the hosts nucleic acid, so that genetic information of the virus is transmitted through daughter cells.
lytic cycle usually considered as the main method of viral reproduction because it ends in the lysis of the infected cell releasing the progeny viruses that will in turn spread and infect other cells.
membranous envelope The two layered membrane that encases the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, which separates the nucleus from other cell organelles
mucous membrane A lubricating membrane lining all body passages and cavities.
nucleic acid core each monomeric unit is composed of phosphoric acid, sugar and nitrogenous base, and involved in the preservation, replication, and expression of hereditary information in every living cell.
phagocytic white blood cell Any of the cells specialized in engulfing and destroying foreign particles, as well as in removing waste particles and cell debris
primary line of defence The first line of defence against viruses and bacteria, such as skin, Lysozyme, and The clotting of blood near open wounds
protein capsid The protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
RNA a nucleic acid that is generally single stranded and plays a role in transferring information from DNA to protein-forming system of the cell.
Second line of defence Interferons are a family of proteins that are released by a cell that is under attack by an antigen. These interferons attach themselves to receptors on the plasma membrane of other cells, effectively instructing it of the previous cells' situation.
tertiary line of defence A virus infects a specific host: only plants, only animals, only fungus or only bacteria. ... As well, viruses may infect only specific cells of the body Ex.
white blood cell primary role involves the body's immune system, protecting the body against invading microorganisms and foreign particles.
aerobic respiration A form of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate energy.
antibiotic Antimicrobial agent made from microorganisms, and can kill and inhibit the growth of microorganisms, especially those that are infectious or disease-causing
antiseptic a substance that inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms without necessarily killing them.
binary fission A type of asexual reproduction common among prokaryotes wherein a cell divides giving rise to two cells, each having the potential to grow to the size of the original cell.
classification The systematic grouping of living things based on characteristics, hierarchical, or phylogenetic relationships
conjugation The temporary joining together of two bacterial cells to transfer genetic material via the plasmid from the donor cell to the recipient cell.
disinfectant An agent that disinfects, applied particularly to agents used on inanimate objects.
fermentation An anaerobic (without oxygen) cellular process in which organic foods are converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy (ATP) is produced.
motility The ability to move actively and on instinct, usually consuming energy in the process.
prokaryote A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Antibody a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen.
Created by: nbailes