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Bio Standard 1

structure and function

organelle small part of a cell
eukaryote cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
nucleus control center of the cell
plasma membrane outer layer of all cells; controls what goes in and out of cells
cell wall creates rigid support and structure for only plant cells
mitochondria where cellular respiration takes place to create ATP
vacuoles water storage
chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place to create sugar for plants
ribosome site of protein synthesis
prokaryote cells with no nucleus or membrane bound organelles
folded membranes increases surface area
DNA codes for proteins
plant cell contains cell walls, chloroplasts, large vacuoles, and are box shaped
animal cells contains small vacuoles, centrioles, and are sphere shaped
bacteria - contains cell walls, circular DNA, very small simple and old cells prokaryotes
present in all cells DNA, cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm
differentiation stem cells become different types of cells in multicellular organisms
stem cells undifferentiated cells
nerve cell relays electrical signals to other body parts
blood cells carries oxygen to other body parts
muscle cells allows for body movement
sperm cell male reproductive cell
homeostasis maintaining balance
buffers helps to maintain the pH
active transport requires energy to moves molecules across the cell membrane from high to low concentration
passive transport no energy is required to move molecules across the cell membrane from low to high concentration
osmosis movement of water from high concentration to low concentration
hypotonic solution that causes a cell to take in water and swell
hypertonic solution that causes a cell to release water and shrink
isotonic solution that allows a cell to maintain size
diffusion movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration
sodium potassium pump pump which removes 3 sodium from a cell and then lets 2 potassium in the cell; requires ATP
semi-permeable only certain things are allowed into or out of the cell
G1 & G2 parts of the cell cycle that allows the cell to grow while maintaining normal function
S Phase part of the cell cycle where DNA is replicated
Mitosis making an exact copy of a cell
cytokinesis splitting of the cytoplasm during cellular reproduction
prophase 1st phase of mitosis; nuclear envelope disappears, chromosomes become visible, spindle fibers develop
metaphase 2nd phase of mitosis; chromosomes line up along equator
anaphase 3rd phase of mitosis; chromosomes begin moving toward opposite sides of the cell
telophase 4th phase of mitosis; nuclear membrane develops, spindles disappear, chromosomes go back to chromatin
asexual reproduction daughter cells are an exact copy of the parent cell
Created by: colvardh



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