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Cell Molecules

Chapter 3: Molecules of the Cell

TermDefinition
Amino Acid The monomers that build proteins in all living cells
Aqueous Solution One or more substances dissolved in water
Atom The smallest portion into which an element can be divided and still enter into a chemical reaction
Carbohydrate An organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is an important source of carbon and energy for all organisms
Cellulose a polysaccharide carbohydrate composed of beta-glucose subunits
Chemical Bond A force between two or more atoms that tend to bind those atoms together
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction A process of bonding two molecules together by removing the products of water and joining the open bonds
Denaturation A process caused by heat or pH in which proteins lose their function due to changes in their molecular structure
Deoxyribonucleic Acid The genetic material of all cells and many viruses
Disaccharide A sugar formed from two single sugar molecules
Double Helix The structure of DNA, in which the two complementary strands are connected by hydrogen bonds
Electron A negatively charged particle with a small mass that moves around the nucleus of an atom
Element A substance that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter; distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms
Enzyme A reusable protein molecule that brings about a chemical change while itself remaining unchanged
Fat A type of lipid made up of a glycerol attached to three fatty acids
Hydrolysis Reaction A process in which a molecule is split into two parts through the interaction of H+ and (OH)- of a water molecule
Hydrophilic Referring to a substance that dissolves easily in or mixes easily with water
Hydrophobic Referring to a substance that does not dissolve in or mix easily with water
Lipid A nonpolar organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Molecule Two or more atoms held together by a sharing of electrons
Monosaccharide A simple sugar that cannot be broken down into simpler sugars
Neutron An uncharged particle in the atomic nucleus
Nucleic Acid A high-molecular weight molecule consisting of nucleotide chains that convey genetic information and are found n all living cells and viruses
Nucleobase Any of five nitrogen-containing compounds found in nucleic acids
Oil A fat that is liquid at room temperature
Organic Referring to chemicals that contain carbon atoms
Peptide Bond A linkage between the amino group on one amino acid and the carboxyl group on another amino acid
Peptidoglycan A complex molecule of the bacterial cell wall
Phospholipid A water-insoluble compound containing glycerol, two fatty acids and a phosphate head group
Polypeptide A chain of linked amino acids
Polysaccharide A complex carbohydrate made up of sugar molecules linked into a branched or chain structure
Primary Structure The sequence of amino acids in a protein
Protein A chain or chains of linked amino acids used as a structural material or enzyme in a living cell
Quaternary Structure Two or more polypeptides bonded together to form the final functional protein
Ribonucleic Acid The nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis and gene control
Saturated Referring to a water-insoluble compound that cannot incorporate any additional hydrogen atoms
Secondary Structure The region of a polypeptide folded into an alpha helix or pleated sheet
Starch An energy polysaccharide that is built from many glucose molecules
Sterol An organic solid containing several carbon rings with side chains
Tertiary Structure The folding of a polypeptide back on itself
Unsaturated Referring to a water insoluble compound that can incorporate additional hydrogen atoms
Created by: drmicro