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Endocrine System

Exocrine glands produce nonhormonal substances, such as sweat and saliva, and have ducts that carry these substances to a membrane surface
Endocrine glands also called ductless glands, produce hormones and lack ducts.
The endocrine glands include the pitutitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands.
Autocrines chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secret them.
Paracrines act locally (within the same tissue) but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals.
Target cells A hormone influences the activity of only those tissue cells that have receptors for it
Water-soluble hormone (all amino acid-based hormones except thyriod hormone) act on receptors in the plasma membrane.
Lipid-soluble hormones (steroid and thryoid hormones) act on receptors inside the cell, which directly activate genes.
Negative feedback mechanism occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
Up-regulation low levels of a hormone can cause its target cells to form additional receptors for that hormone
Down-regulation desensitizes the target cells so they respond less vigorously to hormonal stimulation, preventing them from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.
Permissiveness is the situation in which one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present
Synergism occurs when more than one hormone produces the same effects as the target cell and their combined effects are amplified
Antagonism occurs when one hormone opposes the action of another
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Thyroid-releasing hormon (TRH); target is thyroid gland. It stimulates the secretion of thryoid hormones
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); targets ovaries and testes (gonads). Females-stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estrogen production. Males-stimulates sperm production
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Females-triggers ovulation and stimulates ovarian production production of estrogen and progesterone. Males-stimulates testosterone production
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Targets adrenal cortex. Stimulates the release of glucocorticoids and androgens
Growth hormone (GH) Targets liver, muscle, bone, and cartilage. Stimulates body growth and protein synthesis, mobilizes fat and conserves glucose
Prolactin (PRL) Stimulates milk production (lactation)
Oxytocin Nerve impulses from hypothalamus neurons in response to cervical/uterine stretch or suckling of an infant. Targets uterus and mammary glands.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Nerve impulses from hypothalamic neurons in response to increased blood solute concentration or decreased blood volume. Targets kidneys
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) low levels of calcium in the blood. Targets bones and kidneys.
Positive Feedback mechanism The output results moves in the same direction as the initial response. The response enhances the original stimulus so the response is accelerated
Plasma the colorless fluid part of blood, lymph, or milk, in which corpuscles or fat globules are suspended
Water, Salts, plasma proteins, Electrolytes Whats in plasma
Created by: 1368662596514741



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