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What is the definition of evolution? Change over time
How old is the earth predicted to be? 4.6 billion years ago
The evidence suggests that life first began how long ago 3.8 billion years ago
What were the first living organisms on the planet? Prokaryotes
How long ago did multicellular life appear? 1.2 billion years ago
When did fungi and plants begin to colonize the land? 500 million years ago
When did the earliest pre-human ancestors appear? 6 to 7 million years ago
When did humans (homo sapiens) first appear? 195,000 years ago
How many times have all the land masses on the earth come together to form one giant supercontinent? 7 times
Eras in time are separated by what event? A mass extinction
What process causes the earth to constantly change form? Continental Drift / Plate Techtonics
How long ago did Pangea break apart? 200 million years ago
What was the largest mass extinction on record? How many species died off? The Permian Mass Extinction. 86% of all species. 96% of marine animals. 70% of terrestrial life.
How was the early atmosphere on earth different from the atmosphere we have now? The atmosphere had no O2 and was thick with water vapor & various compounds were released.
Who were the first two scientists to suggest that organic molecules could have formed during the early stages of the earth? A.I. Oparin & J.B. Haldane
Explain the Miller-Urey experiment and what it tells us about the possibilities of how life began. They caused an enclosed system that represented the atmosphere & Sea. Electricity which represented lightning. Condensed represented rain. Amino Acids were in the water vapor. This gave us some type of idea how life was created.
What are the five main pieces of evidence we use to support evolution? 1) Biogeography 2) Embryology 3) Fossil Record 4) Comparative Anatomy 5) Molecular Biology
How do we use Biogeography to show how organisms are related? Look at where organisms are located & their adaptations in geographic distribution.
How do we use Embryology to show how organisms are related? Comparison of early stages of development among different organisms
How do we use Fossil Record to show how organisms are related? Shows past organisms & where they were alive / fossils are compared to see evolutionary change
How do we use Comparative Anatomy to show how organisms are related? Comparison of body structures in different species
How do we use Molecular Biology to show how organisms are related? Reveal evolutionary relationships comparing DNA & AA sequences between different organisms
Why is the fossil record an incomplete story? Only 1% of all organisms are fossilized
How many of the organisms that have ever lived have gone extinct? 99%
About how many of the extinct organisms have become fossilized? 1%
What are the types of fossils? 1) Petrified Fossil 2) Cast 3) Mold 4) Imprints
Describe a Petrified Fossil. Organic material is replaced with minerals
Describe a Cast. Mold fills with material, 3D model of the mold.
Describe a Mold. Deeper pattern in rock, Hard tissue
Describe a Imprint. Shallow pattern in rock, Soft tissue
What method do we use to determine the age of fossils and the earth? Radiometric Dating (Carbon Dating)
How can we use the strata layers to determine the age of fossils relative age of fossils? The further down the strata the older it is.
Explain why an individual organism cannot go through the process of evolution. An individual organism cannot go through evolution alone because you cannot change your DNA. Genes have to be passed on.
What does go through evolution? How does this occur? A species / population. The unfit for the environment die off and good traits are passed on.
What is a homologous structure? Give an example. Structures that are similar but have different functions. Human Arm V. Whale Arm.
What is an analogous structure? Give an example. Structures that have the same function but evolved evolved separately. Bat V. Bird.
What is a vestigial structure? Give an example. Remnants of features that served important functions in an organism's ancestors. In humans an Appendix, Tailbone, and Wisdom Teeth. In a Whale the Hip Bone.
What is speciation? New species arise from old species.
What was the name of the ship Darwin was on? H.M.S Beagle
How long did Darwin sail around the world collecting his evidence? Five years
On what island chain did Darwin make many of his major discoveries? Galapagos Islands
What were the main organisms and the traits that he observed? Finches
What did Lamarck believe about evolution? Lamarck believed that if you use something then use pass that trait on, but if you don't use that trait then you don't pass it on.
What mechanism did Darwin suggest as the driving factor of evolution? Natural Selection
Describe how natural selection works. Populations evolve, amplify or diminish heritable traits. If the environment changes them the animal with the best traits live & the bad traits die. Some traits are better at surviving.
What must a population have in order to experience evolution or natural selection? Variation
Explain evolution is a never ending process that never leads to perfection. Evolution is a change because of the environment. We will have to keep changing with the environment.
Why might an organism be the most "fit" today, but in five years, those same traits may be considered "unfit"? The environment changes & we might not have the trait needed anymore.
What is microevolution? A small change in the gene pool
Does natural selection / evolution act upon the genotype or the phenotype of an individual? Phenotype
Explain why evolution is an "indirect force".
Explain how washing your hands can cause evolution. There becomes less variation in bacteria because you killed the bacteria that was not resistant so the ones that are resistant reproduced.
What is a gene pool? Total collection of genes in a population at any one time that may be passed on to the next generation.
What is allele frequency? How often a certain allele is in the gene pool
How does mutation affect the genes of a population? Introduces new genes to a population.
How does sexual reproduction help to increase variation within a population? Makes sure genes get randomly passed on.
How does Hardy-Weinberg tell if evolution is occurring? Hardy-Weinberg can show a change in the relative frequencies of alleles
What are the five main causes for genetic change? 1) Natural Selection 2) Genetic Drift 3) Gene Flow 4) Mutation 5) Sexual Selection (Non-Random Mating)
How does non-random mating affect the genetics of a population? Individuals choose certain characteristics to pass on & then there is less variation between individuals. Could lead to a weaker population.
What is gene flow? Movement of individuals or gametes / spores between population & can alter allele frequencies in a population (migration).
What is genetic drift? How do finches show this? Change in the gene pool of a population due to chance (random). Ex: earthquake. The finches show the founder effect.
What is the bottleneck effect? A loss of genetic diversity when a population is greatly reduced due to natural disasters.
What is the founder effect? When a few individuals colonize a new habitat. Start with limited genes in the population.
What is relative fitness? The contribution it makes to the gene pool of the next generation relative to the contribution of other individuals . Your ability to survive & reproduce.
What is stabilizing selection? Favors intermediate phenotypes, acting against extreme phenotypes. Variation is less. Extremes go away.
What is directional selection? Acts against individuals at one of the phenotypic extremes.
What is disruptive selection? Favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range. Leads to new species.
What is sexual selection? When you choose your mate based on phenotype.
What is a species according to the biological species concept? A group of populations who live in the same place, interbreed in nature, and produce fertile offspring.
What definition would we use to determine what species a fossil is? Why can't we use the biological species concept for this? Morphological species concept classifies organisms based on physical appearance.
What is reproductive isolation? Prevents members of different species from mating with each other. Prevents flow between species & maintains separate species.
What are reproductive barriers? Anything that causes reproductive isolation.
What is a prezygotic barrier? What are the five types of this? Prezygotic barriers prevent mating or fertilization between species. 1) Habitat Isolation 2) Temporal Isolation 3) Behavioral Isolation 4) Mechanical Isolation 5) Gametic Isolation 6) Geographically Separated.
What is a postzygotic barrier? What are the three types of this? Prevents proper development. 1) Reduced Hybrid Viability 2) Reduced Hybrid Fertility 3) Hybrid Breakdown
What is allopatric speciation? Population of the same species are geographically separated, Isolating their gene pools. Caused bulk of different organisms
What is sympatric speciation? Occurs when a new species arises within the same geographic areas as a parent species. Become unable to reproduce
What is adaptive radiation? How do the finches exhibit this? The evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestor. The finches are 14 different species but all came from 1 animal
What is gradualism? When does this type of speciation occur? Very slow constant change. When environment changes slowly
What is punctuated equilibrium? When does this type of speciation occur? Species change most as they arrive from an ancestral species & them experience relatively little changes for the rest of their existence. Rapid change then stay the same for a long, earth changes rapidly.
Explain whether natural selection / evolution is a planned process or a random process. Random you can't predict what the environment will look like.
Created by: Elise.Postma