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Unit 6


Reactant Takes place at the beginning of the reaction
Product Found at the end of a reaction
Metabolism The totality of all chemical reactions occurring within a biological unit
Anabolic Reactions that combine smaller reactants to form larger products
Catabolic Reactions that break apart larger reactants to form smaller products
Substrate The molecule in an enzyme mediated reaction that bonds to the enzyme and is subsequently altered.
Transition State A molecular structures maximum point of instability as it beings to undergo a chemical reaction.
Activation Energy The energy needed to push a given molecule to its transition state.
Denaturing Changes to protein shape that disturb or eliminate their function
Factors that lead to Denaturing exposure to high heat exposure to extremes of PH exposure to toxic, heavy metals, organic poisons
How do enzymes affect the rate of reaction? Enzymes are protein catalysts, that help speed up a specific reaction.
How do enzymes affect the stability of substrates and the transition state? Enzymes decrease stability of the substrates and allow the substrate molecules to achieve their transition state at normal body temperatures.
How do enzymes affect the activation energy? Enzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required to reach transition state.
Co Factors non-protein components of enzymes that assist enzyme functioning, to achieve its proper functional three- dimensional shape.These are usually metals such as zinc, copper, magnesium, or molybdenum
Co-enzymes Co-enzymes are simply organic cofactors, they also assist enzyme functioning, by allowing them to achieve their proper functional three-dimensional shape