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Unit 4

Organic Molecules

Organic Referring to molecules comprised of 1 or more carbon to carbon bonds
Illustration of a monosaccharide Monosaccharides can exist as either straight-chain or ring-shaped molecules.Monosaccharides are classified according to the number of carbon atoms they possess.
Illustration of a disaccharide s you might suspect based on the di- meaning 'two' prefix, a disaccharide is two monosaccharides combined into one.
Illustration of a polysacharide Polysaccharides are formed by three or more monosaccharides, for example Amylose(starch), Amylopectin, Glycogen (animal storage polymer), Cellulose, etc. Amylose, or starch, is a helical chain of Glucose monomers, which are bonded by glycosidic linkages.
Illustration of an amino acid Amino acids are molecules used to build proteins. All amino acids have a central carbon atom surrounded by a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group (COOH), an amino group (NH2), and an R-group.
Illustration of fatty acids A long hydrocarbon chain. The chain length ranges from 4 to 30 carbons; 12-24 is most common.The chain is typically linear, and usually contains an even number of carbons. A carboxylic acid group.
Illustration of Triglycerides Triglycerides are formed by combining glycerol with three fatty acid molecules. ... Alcohols and organic acids join to form esters. The glycerol molecule has three hydroxyl (HO–) groups.
Illustration of Nucleotides The nucleotide in DNA consists of a sugar (deoxyribose), one of four bases (cytosine, thymine,, adenine, guanine ), and a phosphate. Cytosine and thymine are pyrimidine bases, while adenine and guanine are purine bases.
Illustration of phospholipid phospholipid has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic component. A single phospholipid molecule has a phosphate group on one end, called the head, and two side-by-side chains of fatty acids that make up the lipid tails.
Carbohydrates Monomoers Polymers Monosaccharide Polysaccharide
Fats Monomers Polymers 3 Fatty Acids Trisaccharides
Phospholipids Monomers Polymers 2 Fatty Acids Phospholipids
Proteins Monomers Polymers Amino acids Polypeptides
Nucleic Acid Monomers Polymers Nucleotide polynucleotide
Saturated Fats Single Bonds Solid at Room temperatue Animal Sources Straight Chains Stackable
Unsaturated Fats Double Bonds Oily/liquid at Room temperature Plant Sources Kinked Unstackable
Primary Level Linear sequence of amino acids Peptide bonds
Secondary Level Helixes, Pleated Sheets Hydrogen Bonds
Tertiary Level Globules, Fibers Ionic bonds, sulfur bonds, hydrophilic & hydrophobic interactions
Quaternary Compound polypeptide Ionic bonds, sulfur bonds, some hydrogen bonds
Illustration of a steroid The steroid core structure is composed of seventeen carbon atoms, bonded in four "fused" rings: three six-member cyclohexane rings (rings A, B and C in the first illustration) and one five-member cyclopentane ring (the D ring).