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Repro System

TermDefinition
reproduction to make a copy of something
why is reproduction needed for the survival of a species, not an individual? reproduction allows for a species to survive. species that have favorable adaptations will survive and reproduce, allowing for the species to survive.
testes produce and store sperm cells
epididymis storage area on top of the tests (place where sperm matures)
sperm head=nucleus mid piece=mitochondria tail/flagellum=used to propel sperm forward seme is released during ejaculation
sperm duct/vas deferens carries sperm out of the tests after being stored in the epididymis towards urethra
seminal vesicles provide nutrients for the sperm
urethra tube that carries semen through the penis to the outside of the body
penis intro of sperm cells into the vagina of female reproductive track
functions of the male repro system produce sperm, deposit sperm in females, produce hormones
functions of the female repro system production of egg cells (1n gametes), care for fertilized egg (prep body to nourish a developing embryo), produce hormones
ovaries (female gonads) produce egg cells (ova) in tiny cavities called follicles
ovulation one a month, a follicle will rupture and release one egg
oviduct (fallopian tubes) carries egg to uterus, fertilization occurs here
uterus (womb) thick muscular walled organ with rich blood supply, site of embryo growth
vagina receives sperm cells from male, birth passage for baby
menstrual cycle preparation of uterus for a fertilized egg
follicle stage (10 days) starts when estrogen levels are low, causes the pituitary gland to release FSH & LH, a follicle is formed, egg matures here, estrogen levels increase, increased estrogen levels cause uterus lining to thicken
ovulation (3-4 days) a large rush of FSH and LH is released causing the follicle to rupture. egg goes to fallopian tubes
corpus lutetium (10-14 days) ruptured follicle forms a yellowish structure called the corpus luteum, corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which further enhances the vascularization or the thickening of the uterine lining
menstruation (3-7 days) breakdown of uterine lining in the absence of a fertilized egg, occurs when fertilization doesn't take place
purpose of meiosis to create sex cells (gametes)
gametes sex cells
meiosis sex cells, 2 divisions, 46 chromosomes, 23 chromosomes at end, dna is varied, sexual reproduction, 4 cells produced, haploid
mitosis body cells, 1 division, 46 chromosomes, 46 chromosomes, identical dna, asexual reproduction, 2 cells produced, diploid
spermatogenesis formation of sperm in the testes
oogenesis formation of eggs in the ovaries
random fertilization distribution of homologous chromosomes between resulting nuclei is random, which results in variation
synapsis pairing of homologous chromosomes
tetrad a 4 pair structure that forms during meiosis prophase
crossing over exchange of genetic material during synapsid
homologous chromosomes corresponding chromosomes from the opposite sex parent
disjunction breaking of a tetrad in anaphase 1
diploid 2 sets of chromosomes
haploid 1 set of chromosomes
uterus changes uterine wall expands, forming placenta. umbilical chord connects the mother to child through the placenta. amniotic sac and fluid cushions and protects the baby from poor stimuli.
placenta a temporary organ through which the fetus receives for and oxygen from the mothers body and removes wastes
umbilical chord the structure that connects the fetus and placenta
identical twins one egg is fertilized by one sperm
fraternal twins two eggs and two sperm injected into the uterus
zygote fertilized egg
zygote formation fusion of male and female gamete
embryo formation cleavage, blastula, gastrula, growth
embryo early stage of development
differentiation cells become different from one another
Created by: Jlags