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Chapter 28

"Prokaryotes" Evolutionary Biology, BIOL152 CSU Chico

biofilm a complex communtity of different species of bacteria
peptidoglycan carbohydrate polymers linked together by peptide cross-bridges. these often make up bacterial cell walls
pseudomurein similar to peptoglycan in structure and function
gram stain staining ptocess to identify between two types of bacteria
gram positive has a thicker peptidoglycan wall
gram negative has less peptidoglycan
lipopolysaccharide lipids with polysaccharides attached
capsule surrounds the other cell wall layers, gelatinous material
flagellin the material flagella are made of
pili hair like structures that occur on the cells of gram negative prokaryotes
endospores a thick wall around their genome and cytoplasm in order to go dormant and survive extreme stress
nucleoid region single double-stranded ring of DNA that is highly condensed to form a visible region of the cell
conjugation gene transfer via cell-to-cell contact
transjuction gene transfer by virus
transformation recieves genes directly from environment
F-plasmid independant genetic entity that uses cellular machinery for replication
Hfr Cell high frequency of recombination; a cell with an integrated F Plasmid
generalized transduction virtually any gene can be transferred
specialized transduction only a few genes are transferred
R Plasmids plasmids with antibiotic resistance genes
photoautotrophs photosynthesis; use sunlight energy to build organic molecules from carbon dioxide
cyanobacteria bacteria that use alpha chlorophyll as the key light capturing pigment
chemolithoautotrophs ontain energy by oxidizing inorganic substances
nitrification oxidize ammonia or nitrite to obtain energy producing the nitrate that plants get from the ground
photoheterotrophs light for energy and organic molecules for carbon
chemoheterotrophs majority prokaryotes; get energy and carbon form organic molecules
MDR strains Multi-drug resistant strains