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Chapter 23

"Systematics, Phyloginies, and Comparative Biology"Evolutionary Biology, BIOL152

ancestral similarity among species that is inherited from the most recent common ancestor of an entire group
derived similarity that arose more recently and is shared vy only a subset of the species
taxa species or higher level groups such as genera or families
polarize to determine whether particular character states are ancestral or derived
outgroup a soecies or group of species that is closely related to, but not a member of, the group under study
cladogram depicts a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships
clade species that share a common ancestor as indicated by shared derived characters
synapomorphy a derived character shared by clade members
plesiomorphies ancestral states
symplesiomorphies shared ancestral states
homoplasy a shared derived character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that character state
principle of parsimony favors the system with less assumptions
molecular clock the rate of evolution of a molecule is constant through time
classification placing species in groups
taxonomy science of classifying living things
monophyletic includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all of its decendants
paraphyletic includes the most recent common ancestor of the group but not all of its ancestors
polyphyletic does not include the most recent common ancestor of all the members of a group.
Phylogenetic species concept (PSC) the term species should be applied to groups of populations that have been evolving independantly of other groups of populations
species richness the number of species in a clade



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