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Biology Exam

Chapter 11, 13 & 14.1, 18 & 25, 27, 28, and 29

The different forms of a gene are called alleles.
Gregor Mendel removed the male parts from the flowers of some plants in order to control crosses between plants.
When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited one allele from each parent.
If a pea plant's alleles for height are tt, what is true of its parents? Both parents contributed a recessive allele.
When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails? 1/2
The principles of probability can be used to predict the traits of the offspring of genetic crosses.
Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be homozygous.
What principle states during gamete formation genes different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance? principle of independent assortment
Gregor Mendel's principles of genetics apply to all organisms.
Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan use fruit flies in his studies? Fruit Flies produce a large number of offspring.
Roan cattle show codominance for the color of their hair, are alleles for red&white hair. Heterozygous bull incomp. dom. . It would be pink.
A breed of chicken shows codominance for feather color. 1 Allele codes for black, other codes for white. heterozygous chicken speckled.
Variation in human skin color is an example of polygenic traits.
What determines the color of western white butterflies? temperature and genes
The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol N.
If an organism's diploid number is 12, its haploid number is 6.
Gametes have one allele for each gene.
Gametes are produced by the process of meiosis.
A tetrad consists of a homologous pair of chromosomes, each made of two chromatids.
What is formed at the end of meiosis? four genetically different cells
One way that meiosis I is different from mitosis is that meiosis I produces 2 haploid daughter cells, but mitosis produces 2 diploid daughter cells.
Linked genes are on the same chromosome.
The farther apart two genes are located on a chromosome, the less likely they are to be inherited together.
A heterozygous tall pea plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F1 plant will be tall is 50%
Situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene are incomplete dominance.
Which of the following supports the claim that the environment can affect genetic traits? Hydrangea flower color varies with soil pH.
Due to the process of segregation, alleles separate during the production of______________. gametes
An organism has 38 chromosomes in a body cell. After mitosis each cell has 38 chromosomes. After meiosis each has __ chrom. 19
The principle of independent assortment states that _____ for different traits can segregate independently during formation. genes
______'s principles can be used to study heredity in dogs, cats, and sheep. Mendel
The reddish-brown pigment that gives color to a fruit-fly's eye is controlled by 3 genes, so a fruit fly's eye color is a _____ _______. polygenic trait
In four o'clock plants, flower color is controlled by two alleles that show ________ __________. incomplete dominance
An organism's gametes have ____ the number of chromosomes found in the organism's body cells. half
Crossing-over occurs during the stage of meiosis called_______________. prophase I
What characteristics of pea plants and fruit flies make them good organisms to use for the study of genetics? They both produce "offspring" quickly and produce a large number of them and have a short lifespan.
Probability of cross between 2 homozygous recessive trait offspring will have homozygous recessive? 100%
How many sets of chromosomes are in a diploid cell? two
What happens to the number of chromosomes per cell during meiosis? they cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
What are the only kinds of cells that undergo meiosis? sex cells or gametes
RNA contains the sugar ribose.
Unlike DNA, RNA contains uracil.
Which of the following are found in both DNA and RNA? phosphate groups, guanine, and cytosine
Which of the following is true? RNA is usually single-stranded.
Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts of the cell? mRNA
What is produced during transcription? RNA molecules
How many nucleotides are needed to specify one amino acid? 3
What happens during translation? The cell uses a messenger RNA code to make proteins.
Genes contain instructions for assembling proteins.
Which is the correct sequence of the transfer of information in most organisms? DNA to RNA to protein
In eukaryotes Transcription takes place in the nucleus, and translation takes place in the cytoplasm.
A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called a point mutation.
Which of the following is a chromosomal mutation? inversion
One difference between a gene mutation and a chromosomal mutation is that A chromosomal mutation can change the number of chromosomes in a cell.
Human females produce egg cells that have one X chromosome.
What percentage of human sperm cells carry an X chromosome? 50%
How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype? 46
Sex-linked genes are located on both the X chromosome and the Y chromosome.
Colorblindness is more common in males than in females because the allele for colorblindness is recessive and located on the X chromosome.
Human males have one X and one Y chromosomes.
What are the three main parts that make up an RNA nucleotide? ribose, sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Why are all X-linked alleles expressed in males, even if they are recessive? Because women have two X chromosomes, so one shuts off, but since males only have one it's mostly affective to them.
In RNA, __________ is the sugar in the nucleotide. Ribose
The order of nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the order of ____________ in proteins. Amino Acids
The codon that signals the end of a growing polypeptide is called a(an)__________. stop
the tRNA bases called the_________________ are complementary to three consecutive nucleotides on an mRNA molecule. Anti codon
Insertions and deletions that change the entire genetic message that comes after the mutation are called____________. Frameshift
In humans, sex is determined by the X and ___ chromosome. Y
One reason common names are not useful to biologists is that they can apply to more than one animal.
One goal of scientists is to assign every organism a universally accepted name according to the system known as binomial nomenclature.
To be useful, a scientific name has to refer to a single species.
A genus is composed of a number of similar species.
Animals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young are grouped in the class Mammalia.
What do all organisms have in common? They all use DNA to pass on information.
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin? Fungi
The domain that contains unicellular organisms that live in extreme environments is Archaea
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles is eukaryotic.
Organisms that must obtain nutrients and energy by eating other organisms are heterotrophic.
Student looks at slice of tissue on an unlabeled microscope slide. The student concludes that it isn't from an animal, tissue has? cell walls
Animals have an excretory system that eliminates which type of wastes? ammonia
Homeostasis is a stable internal environment.
Which cordate characteristic is visible on the outside of an adult cat? a tail that extends beyond the anus
All animals eat to obtain nutrients.
Animals have nervous systems that gather information.
The skeleton of a vertebrate is internal and made of bones.
One advantage of asexual reproduction is that animals can increase their numbers rapidly.
The presence of legs or other limbs indicates that the animal is segmented.
In an animal that is bilaterally symmetrical, which two halves mirror each other? the left and right sides
An animal that has body parts that extend outward from its center shows radial symmetry.
Which of the following is a fertilized egg? a zygote
Most mutations have no effect on an organism.
How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype? 46
Animal bodies are_________________, which means that they are composed of many cells. multicellular
All animal cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound ________________. organelles
Animals with backbones are called____________. vertebrates
The essential functions of an animal are necessary to maintain __________________. homeostasis
Sexual reproduction helps maintain________________ diversity in population. genetic
A flexible, supporting structure found only in chordates is the notochord.
Aquatic animals that strain floating plants and animals from the water that they live in are filter feeders.
A parasite is a type of symbiont.
Some mollusks are detritivores. Their main source of food comes from decaying plant and animal remains.
Intracellular digestion occurs when food is digested inside specialized cells.
Carnivores have teeth that are designed to slice.
A side-to-side movement of the jaws would be most useful in an animal that eats grass.
Gases diffuse most efficiently across a thin, moist, selectively permeable membrane.
Which of the following statements is true about gas diffusion across respiratory membranes? Gases diffuse from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.
By pumping water over their gills, fish and aquatic mollusks promote diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Which of the following aquatic animals uses lungs to breathe? dolphins
In what way does living on land present a challenge to terrestrial animal? They must keep their respiratory membranes moist, even in dry environment.
A closed circulatory system is one in which blood flows through a system of blood vessels throughout the body.
Why is double-loop circulation better for larger, more active animals than single-loop? It is difficult for single pump to force blood through the entire system of a large animal.
Excretion is the process of removing metabolic wastes from the body.
Kidneys that can conserve water are essential to homeostasis because some animals live in dry or salty environment.
THe white paste that birds excrete is uric acid.
Butterflies and house flies convert ammonia to uric acid in their Malpighian tubules.
Several different classes make up a phylum.
Muscles work together with a support structure called a skeleton.
All______________ have hair, four-chambered hearts, and regulate their internal body temperature. mammals
Primates can display more complex behaviors than many other mammals because their brains have a well-developed__________. cerebrum
Animals that "chew their cud" most likely have a _____________, or similar specialized organ as part of their digestive tract. rumen
_________ are structures that allow gas exchange between an animal's blood and water. gills
Sea turtles must come to the surface regularly to breathe because they rely on______ for gas exchange. lungs
Annelids have a(an)_________ circulatory system, in which blood is contained in a network of blood vessels. closed
The___________ is the chamber of the heart that receives blood from the body. atria
___________ is a nitrogenous waste that animals must either eliminate immediately or convert to a less-toxic compound. ammonia
Information in the environment that causes an animal to react is a stimulus.
The part of your brain that is responsible for you responding to this question is the cerebrum.
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that connects the brain and the rest of the body is called the spinal cord.
What does molting enable arthropods to do? to grow
Which of the following characteristics is associated only with an endoskeleton? It grows with the animal.
The hydrostatic skeleton of a cnidarian depends on which feature in order to support the animal? gastrovascular cavity
Joints are a critical feature of both endoskeletons and exoskeletons because joints provide flexibility and freedom of movement.
A tendon is a tough piece of connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Gametes are formed by meiosis.
Which conditions would be the most favorable for an organism that reproduces asexually? relatively constant environmental conditions
A land snail is an animal that can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time. This animal is a hermaphrodite.
Which of the following groups of animals only uses internal fertilization? mammals
Synchronizing gamete release during external fertilization increases the chance that eggs will be fertilized.
The difference between an oviparous and ovoviviparous species is that only ovoviviparous embryos can hatch within the mothers' bodies.
The mammals whose offspring are little more than embryos are marsupials.
The shells of amniotic eggs of birds, reptiles, and egg-laying mammals all share which of the following characteristics? They are waterproof.
Endocrine glands are responsible for regulating body activities.
An animal's immune system must be able to tell the difference between body cells and pathogens.
The endocrine system relies on which of the following body systems to communicate with the other systems in the body? circulatory system
One advantage to being an ectotherm is that an ectotherm needs less energy to maintain homeostasis.
An endotherm is an animal that regulates its body temperature partly by generating its own body heat.
An animal's _____________ system detects stimuli, processes information, and coordinates the animal's response. nervous
A DNA test that shows an offspring's DNA comes from two parents indicates that the offspring was produced by____________. sexual reproduction.
Salmon reproduce by__________ fertilization, cuz female salmon releases eggs onto riverbed before male covers w/ sperm. external
A marsupial is a _____________ species because it gives birth to live young that obtained nutrients from mom's body before birth. placental
An immature grasshopper resembles an adult grasshopper but doesn't have wings. Grasshoppers undergo_________ metamor.. incomplete
An organism is able to survive because its systems work together to maintain ______________. homeostasis.
Which of the following behaviors isn't necessary for an animal to reproduce? being brightly colored
The terms "inborn behavior" and "instinct" have the same meaning as innate behavior.
In winter, bears settle into dens and enter a sleep like state that lats until spring. This state is called hibernation.
people first move into apartment near railroad tracks, are awakened each time they hear train. response = habituation? People begin to sleep through sound of the train over the next few nights.
When you use knowledge and experience to figure out why a lamp in your house won't turn on, you use insight learning.
Certain behaviors are innate in animals because they are essential for survival immediately after birth.
cat species mark territories by rubbing glands on their faces against a surface such as tree trunk. Form of comm. relies on a chemical messenger.
During migration, animals undertake a seasonal movement.
What = best way for animal 2 communicate ownership of area's resources to others that visit area when owner isn't around? leave chemicals signals near the boundaries of the area
Imprinting is a form of behavior that occurs during a specific time in young animals.
Which of the following events influences many species of water birds to fly south? changing seasons
If dog barks when inside and goes out immediately, will learn to bark when wants to go out. change in dog's behavior = example of operant conditioning.
A language is A system of communication that combines sounds, symbols, and gestures and has rules, such as grammar.
The appearance of fireflies at dusk is an example of a circadian rhythm because it happens daily.
Dolphins communicate with one another mainly through sound.
The members of a society belong to the same species and interact closely with each other.
It's advantageous for grazing mammals to gather in groups because groups offer greater protection from predation.
Learning occurs whenever a stimulus causes an animal to change its behavior.
Young sea turtles head for the ocean immediately after they hatch. This behavior is most likely innate.
In Pavlov's experiments on classical conditioning, dogs were conditioned to salivate in response to the sound of a bell.
Cat hears rustling in leaves, sounds like mouse digging for food. Cat crouches, becomes still, focuses on leaves. comb. of mov. = a behavior.
Theory that helps family members survive increases chance that one's genes will be passed along to offspring= kin selection
After young duck imprints on nonliving model of adult duck, young duck will follow only that model.
Cephalopods such as squid and octopi can communicate by changing skin colors sometimes patterns. type of comm. =ex. of visual signal.
disturbed, certain moths lift front wings exposing eyelike markings=hind legs. behavior=most effective against pred.= hunt sight.
They type of learning that occurs when a stimulus produces a particular response because it=associated w/ +or - exp. is classical conditioning.
Behavioral cycles that repeat daily are called ____________________. circadian rhythm.
A snail withdraw into its shell if it's prodded with a sharp object. prodding =_________, and snail's withdrawal is response. stimulus
dog learns to ignore vehicles drive past house without stopping, dog's behavior= been altered through learning =__________. habituation
Apes shake branches , make arm gestures, and vocalize loudly when competing. behaviors= manifestations of______________. aggression
Female silkworm moths release chemical messenger= bombykol to attract male moths of same species. Bombykol is a(an)_________. pheromone
Mother cat w/ litter of kittens adopts baby orphan rabbit. Young rabbit won't treat cat as predator cuz rabbit will become__ on cat. imprinted
Unlike learned behavior, a(an) __________ behavior is performed correctly 1st time animal attempts it. innate
If animal produces sound and other animal obtains info. by hearing sound, 2 animals engaging in form of_____________. communication
Elephants and Black Rhinos are considered endangered species. Which human impact is responsible for decline of the animals? Poaching
Premise of disney movie Rio centered around Blue Macaws. human impact highlighted in movie = cause of decline of B.M? Selling to make them Pets & Poaching
This human impact is responsible for the decline in the sloth and orangutan population? deforestation or habitat loss
Two things you can do to prevent further destruction of the Laysan Albatross. recycle items, including household items, instead of throwing them away and cutting the plastic 6-pack ring.
Created by: katie_kazoo_123