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Ecology

Science

QuestionAnswer
The study of the interactions of the plants and animals and their interrelationships with their physical environment. Ecology.
All members of a single species living in a specific area. Population.
A group of organisms that are capable of breeding among themselves and producing fertile offspring under natural conditions. Species.
All the plant and animal populations of a given area, living things only. Community.
Self-contained, interdependent system of living and nonliving things. Ecosystem.
A stable ecosystem must have a constant source and flow of __________ from one population to the next. Energy.
Original source of energy. Sun.
In a stable ecosystem, producers must be able to store energy as _______ ____________. Organic compounds.
In a stable ecosystem, there must be a continuous __________ of materials between the population and environment. Cycle.
The portion of the Earth in which all life exists. Biosphere.
Sequence of ecological organization. 1. Species 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem 5. Biosphere
Physical or non-living part of the environment. Abiotic environment.
Examples of abiotic factors. Light intensity, temperature, amount of moisture, type of soil, oxygen, carbon dioxide.
Abiotic factors serve as ________ ____________. Limiting factors.
Living parts of the environment. Biotic environment.
Interactions within an ecosystem that provide each organism with the nutrients it needs for life functions. Nutritional relationships.
Make their own food. Autotrophs.
Depend upon other organisms for food. Hetertrophs.
Heterotrophs that use dead organic matter as a source of food. Saprophyte/Scavengers.
Heterotrophs that eat plants. Herbivores.
Role of saprophytes. Recycle nutrients back into the environment.
Animals that eat other animals. Carnivores.
Attacks and eats other animals. Predators.
Eat both plants and animals. Omnivores.
One organism benefits and the other isn't affected. Commensalism.
Example of commensalism. Barnacle and whale.
Both organisms benefited. Mutualism.
Example of mutualism. Lichen and bacteria.
Organisms benefits at the expense of the host. Parasitism.
Example of parasitism. Tapeworm.
A series of organisms through which food and energy is passed in an ecosystem. Food chain.
Interconnected food chains in an ecosystem. Food web.
Organisms that eat other organisms. Consumers.
Organisms that feed directly upon plants. Primary consumer.
Animals that eat the primary consumer. Secondary consumer.
Animals that eat the secondary consumer. Tertiary consumer.
Feeds off dead organisms. Decomposers.
Examples of decomposes. Bacteria and fungi.
Shows the amount of energy at each feeding level. Pyramid of energy.
Who has the most energy? Producers.
Who has the least amount of energy? Highest level consumer.
Why do higher level consumers have less energy? Energy gets lost as heat and unavailable chemical energy due to metabolism.
Shows the relative mass of organisms at each feeding level. Pyramid of biomass.
Amount of organic matter. Biomass.
Has the most biomass. Producer.
Has the least biomass. Highest level of consumers.
The cycles of materials between living things and the physical environment. Biogeochemical cycles.
Examples of biogeochemical cycles. Carbon hydrogen oxygen cycle, water cycle, nitrogen cycle.
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled by the processes of ___________ and ______________. Photosynthesis, respiration.
Cycling of water occurs between the __________ of the Earth and the _____________. Surface, atmosphere.
Water that escapes into the air in the form of water vapor. Evaporated water.
Loss of water vapor from a plant through the stomates of the leaves. Transpiration.
Water returns to the surface through _____________ and __________. Condensation, precipitation.
Converts free nitrogen into nitrates, which enter the soil as soluble nutrients that can be absorbed as plant roots. Nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Convert nitrogenous wastes into ammonia. Decomposers.
Converts ammonia into nitrates. Nitrifying bacteria.
Breaks down nitrogen compounds into free nitrogen which returns back to the atmosphere. Denitrifying bacteria.
Process by which an existing community is gradually replaced by a new one. Ecological succession.
First plants to populate a specific location. Pioneer organisms.
Examples of pioneer organisms. Lichens and moss.
Typical sequence of plant population from early plant forms to a climax forest. Plant succession.
A mature stable community that is in its final stage of an ecological ecosystem. Climax community.
A shallow pond can turn into a woodland area. Pond succession.
Conflict between organisms trying to use resources of the environment. Competition.
Examples of resources competition can be over. Living space, water, and oxygen.
Particular way a species functions in an ecosystem. Niche.
Each species has __________ niche. One.
The measurement of the degree to which species vary in an ecosystem. Biodiversity.
More diversity= _____________ stability. More.
Created by: emarciante9