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Adaptive Immuninty

QuestionAnswer
Where do B cells originate? Bone Marrow
By what method does Bcells make their BCR's? gene re-arrangement
What gene segments do the heavy chain consist o? One V, One D, One J and One C
What gene segments do the light chain consist of? One V, one J and one C
What is the specific antigen that the B cell binds to called? Cognate antigen
What part of the cognate antigen does the BCR bind to? Epitope
What are the BCR accessory molecules? IgAlpha and IgBeta
What can co-stimulation can occur to reduce the amount of cross linking by 100-fold? Complement receptor and complement fragments on the antigen
In the T-cell independent pathway, what secondary simulation interaction occurs? TLR and LPS
In the T cell dependent pathway, what secondary co-stimulation interaction occurs? CD40L and CD40
How does class switching occur? Gene re-arrangement in the constant region
What is IgM good for? Activating complement
what shape is IgM? Pentameric
What is IgG good for? Neutralising viruses , opsonisation, crossing the placenta and ADCC
What is IgA good for? Protecting the mucosal surfaces as it is resistant to degradation
Why is IgA resistant to degradation? Due to the J chain
What shape is IgA? Dimeric
What is IgE good for? Killing parasites
How does IgE work? Fc receptors on mast cellls bind to IgE. When Fab region of IgE binds to parasite, mast cell degranulates
What two career choices do B cells have? Plasma cells or memory cells
What cells do MHC-I present to? Cytotoxic T cells
What cells do MHC-II present their antigen to? Helper T cells
What cells express MHC-I? All nucleated cells
What cells express MHC-II? Antigen presenting cells
What are the three MHC-I genes? HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C
Outline the three steps in MHC-I processing 1. Degradation of proteins to peptides 2. transport of the peptides to ER via TAP proteins 3. Binding of peptide to MHC-I
What genes are responsible for MHC-II? HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR
What covers the MHC-II binding site in the ER? Invariant chain
What is the invariant chain converted to in the endosome? CLIP
What removes CLIP to allow binding of peptide to MHC-II? HLA-DM
What is TLR-2 responsible for? Peptidoglycan
What is TLR-4 responsible for? LPS
What is TLR-5 responsible for? Flagellum
What i TLR-7 responsible for? ssRNA
What is TLR-3/9 responsible for? dsDNA
What are the three APC? Dendritic cell, macrophage and B cell
During the DC resting phase, the expression of which molecules are low? B7 and MHC-II
When the DC migrates to the lymphocytes, what does it recruit from the blood to replace them? Monocyte
Why do macrophages express MHC-II if they dont go to lymph nodes? Re-stimulate the T helper cells
What is the usefulness of B cells as APC? It can generate lots of MHC-II quickly in response to a low conc. of antigen in subsequent infections
What are the two types of TCR? Alpha and beta, OR gamma and delta
What accessory molecule does the TCR need to be activated? CD3
What co-receptor does MHC-I bind with? CD8
What co-receptor does MHC-II bind with? CD4
What do Th1 cytokines fight against? Bacterial infections
What do Th2 cytokines fight against? Parasites
What cytokines stimulate Th cells to become Th1? IL-12
What cytokines stimulate Th cells to become Th2? IL-4
What substance does Tc cells secrete? Perforin and granzyme
Created by: Jake_Bark