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Bio: Ner/Endo Vocab

Regulation Coordination and control of life activities
Stimuli Something that causes a response
Cerebellum Maintains balance, equilibrium, and posture
Cerebrum Controls voluntary activities
Medulla Controls involuntary activities
Spinal chord Controls reflexes and brings impulse from nerves to the brain
Stimulus A signal that carries info and can be detected
Response Reaction to a stimulus
Receptors Detect certain stimuli and changes in the environment
Effectors Organs of response
Impulse Electro-chemical charge generated along a neuron
Neuron A nerve cell, specialized cells that carry nerve impulses
Neurotransmitters Help carry impulses, chemical that diffuses across the synaptic gap and starts the impulse on the next neuron
Cell body Contains the cell organelles
Dendrites Highly branched fibers that receives the impulse
Axon Long, thin fiber that carries the impulse away from the cell body. It extends from the cell body to the terminal branches.
Schwann cells Cells that surround the axon
Myelin sheath white fatty protective substance produced by the Schwann cells. Insulating membrane; has nodes (gaps); nerve impulse jumps from one gap to the next, which enables impulse movement to be faster
Terminal branches End of neuron that almost touches another neuron
Synaptic knob The end of buds of the terminal branches that contain sacs holding neurotransmitters
Synapse Space between 2 neurons in which an impulse is transferred from a neuron to another cell.
Central nervous system Processes info and creates a response, controls involuntary and voluntary actions, includes the brain and spinal chord
Nervous system CPR: collects info about the body's internal and external environment, process the info, responds to the info
Peripheral nervous system All the nerves and nerve cells outside CNS, extends away from the brain and the spinal chord, relays info to and from your CNS, transmitting voluntary and involuntary actions comes from peripheral nerves
Somatic nervous system Regulates activities under conscious control
Autonomic nervous system Consists of nerves that control heart muscles, glands, and smooth muscles. *Controls homeostasis.
Sensory neurons Found in sense organs, transmits impulses from sense organs to central nervous system
Motor neurons Impulse travels from CNS to muscles or glands
Interneurons Sends info between sensory and motor neurons. Found in central nervous system.
Reflex arc Quick response to a stimulus.
Reflex arc path Sensory receptors, sensory neurons, spinal chord, interneuron, motor neuron, muscle
Meningitis Inflammation of the membranes around the brain and spinal chord
Cerebral palsy Damage to motor center in the brain
Stroke Damage to the nerve cells in the brain - artery blockage
Polio Virus of the spinal chord, can cause paralysis
Paralysis Caused by spinal chord damage; loss of feeling and muscle function
Pituitary gland L: brain base F: TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone - causes thyroid to increase thyroxin production FSH - follicle stimulating hormone - stimulates egg cell development Growth hormone - long bone development
Thyroid gland L: neck F: Thyroxin - regulates metabolism rate
Parathyroid glands L: found with the thyroid gland F: Produce parathormone, which controls calcium metabolism
Adrenal glands L: above kidneys F: adrenaline - controls heartbeat cortisol - regulates sugar metabolism
Gonads Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Testes produce testosterone.
Islets of langerhans L: pancreas F: insulin - absorption of sugar, lowers blood sugar glucagon - adds sugar to blood from liver, increases blood sugar
Positive feedback Increase of one chemical leads to an increase of another
Negative feedback Increase of one chemical leads to decrease of another
Body temp Brain detects low temp, sends message to muscles to shiver, increased body temp stops shivering
Guard cells Causes pores on leaves to close to reduce evaporation on hot days
Pancreas (glucose level high results in...) Beta cells in pancreas releasing insulin, fat cells take in glucose from blood, normal blood glucose level
Pancreas (glucose level low results in...) Alpha cells in pancreas release glucagon, liver release glucose into blood, normal blood level of glucose achieved
Goiter Thyroid gland cannot produce enough thyroid due to lack of iodine in diet
Diabetes Excessive sugar in blood, inability to store excess glucose as glycogen.
Created by: Jlags



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