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Test 10

Final Exam

What is the meaning of the dual innervations? parasympathetic & sympathetic
What organs and tissues are innervated by autonomic nervous system? cardiac, smooth, glands
What cranial nerves carry parasympathetic motor impulses? III, VII, IX, X
In which system, the cell bodies of pregangllionic neurons are in the lateral gray horns of T1-L2? Sympathetic: thoracolumbar outflow
In which division or system, the axons of postganglionic neurons tend to be short? Sympathetic
In which system, the axons of postganglionic neurons tend to be short? Parasympathetic
In which system, the ganglia in this division located near to within the wall of visceral effectors? Parasympathetic: Vagus nerve
In which division, the stimulation causes the pupil dilation and airway dilation? sympathetic
Which system stimulates the secretion and motility of the GI tract? Parasympathetic
Which system contains white and gray rami communicantes? Sympathetic
Preganglionic neurons are myelinated
Postganglionic neurons are unmyelinated
What portions of the respiratory system are capable of gas exchange? respiratory zone
What are included in the upper respiratory system? nose, nasal cavity, pharynx
What are included in the lower respiratory system? larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
What organ functions as a passageway for both air and food? pharynx
What structure shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing? epiglottis
Function of Trachea only allow air to pass through (windpipe)
Structure of trachea located anterior to the esophagus, extends from larynx down to the superior border of the 5th thoracic, divides into right & left primary bronchi. wall contains a stack of 16-20 C shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage
Does the cartilage decrease or increase in quantity in the wall of the airways in the bronchial tree from bronchi to alveoli? decrease in quantity
Does the amount of smooth muscle decrease or increase in quantity in the wall of the airways in the bronchial tree from bronchi to alveoli? increase in quantity
Which bronchus os more vertical, shorter, wider? right primary bronchus
Carina internal ridge, point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi
What does each primary bronchus supply? each lung
What does each secondary bronchus supply? each lobe
What does each tertiary bronchus supply? each bronchopulmonary segment
As a molecule of oxygen passes from alveolar air into blood, what structures/ layers does it pass through? Type I and II alveolar cells, epithelial basement membrane, capillary basement membrane, endothelial cells
Type I alveolar gas exchange occurs
Type II alveolar secrete alveolar fluid to decrease surface tension
Is the diaphragm a skeletal muscle? yes
What nerves does the diaphragm innervate? phrenic nerves C3,4,5 spinal cord
How does the thoracic volume change when it contracts? contraction of diaphragm causes it to flatten, lowering its dome
What are the principal muscles of inspiration? diaphragm, external intercostals
What are the accessory muscles of inspiration? sternocleidomastoid, scalene muscles, and pectoralis minor
What causes the decrease in the lung volume during normal expiration? relaxation of inspiratory muscles, elastic fibers recoiling, inward pull
When alveolar pressure becomes lower than atmospheric pressure, the air will flow into the lungs or out of the lungs? into the lungs
Pulmonary ventilation breathing, includes inspiration and expiration of air between the lungs and the atmosphere
External respiration exchange of gases between the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries, blood gains O2 & loses CO2
Internal respiration exchange of gases between the blood in systemic capillaries and the bodys cells, blood loses O2 & gains CO2
What vessels make up the hepatic portal vein? Superior mesenteric, splenic, inferior mesenteric
What vessel contains nutrient- rich, deoxygenated blood? the liver
what vessels deliver the blood to the liver sinusoids? hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery
what vessel leaves the liver? hepatic vein
Pathway of the GI tract? mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
6 major digestive system activities ingestion (eating), secretion (water, acid) mixing, digestion, absorption, defecation
4 layers of GI tract mucosa(innermost), submucosa, muscularis, serosa(outermost)
Greater omentun largest peritoneal fold, contains large quantities of adipose tissue & many lymph nodes, hangs like a "fatty apron"
What are retroperitoneal organs? kidney and pancreas
Peristaltic contractions food is pushed through the esophagus by involuntary waves of muscular contraction
Where does peristaltic contractions occur? GI tract
Function of esophagus transports food to stomach
Function of stomach Digestion, mixing area and holding reservoir
What secrete mucus? mucosa neck cells
What secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase? chief cells
What secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor? parietal cells
What do parietal cells produce? gastric juice which secretes into stomach lumen
What secrete the hormone gastrin into the blood? G cells
The pancreas is composed of what? exocrine (digestive) and endocrine (hormone)
Where does the main pancreatic duct empty into? common bile duct
Is the pancreatic juice acidic or alkaline? Alkaline
Pathway of the flow of bile Bile canaliculi-> small bile duct-> R&L hepatic ducts-> common hepatic duct-> common bile duct-> hepatopancreatic ampulla-> duodenum
What structures make up the portal triad? hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct
Functions of liver secreting bile, carbohydrate/lipid/protein metabolism, processing drugs & hormones, excretion of bilirubin, synthesis of bile salts, phagocytosis, activation of Vitamin D, storage of glycogen/ certain vitamins, some minerals
What cells produce bile? hepatocytes of liver
What organ stores and concentrate the bile? gallbladder
3 segments of the small intestine duodenum, jejunum, ileum
shortest segment of small intestine duodenum
largest segment of small intestine ileum
What features increase surface area for digestion and absorption? circular folds, villus, microvilli
Created by: _melgozacaroo15



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