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Quinn Science C 3

Cell Cycle and Heredity

TermDefinition
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell; in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis
chromosome a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
binary fission the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria
homologous chromosomes chromosomes with matching information
chromatids identical chromosome copies
centromere the region that holds chromotids together when a chromosome is duplicated
mitosis nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes
cytokinesis the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait the trait observed when at lease one dominant allele for a characteristic is inherited
recessive trait a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
genes segments of DNA that carry hereditary instructions and are passed from parent to offspring; located on chromosomes
genotype the inherited combination of alleles
phenotype an organism's inherited appearance
probability the mathematical chance that an event will occur
sex cells an egg or sperm; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells
meiosis cell division that produces sex cells
sex chromosomes the chromosomes that carry genes that determine the sex or gender of the offspring
punnett square used to visualize all the possible combinations of alleles from the parents
alleles different forms of a single gene
eukaryotic cell a cell that contains a central nucleus and a complicated internal structure
prokaryotic cell a cell that does not have a nucleus or any other membrane-covered organelles; also called a bacterium
Gregor Mendel studied the way traits are passed from parents to offspring using pea plants
self-pollinating plant contains both the male and female reproductive structures
true breeding plant a plant that always produces offspring with the same traits as the parents; self pollinates
cross-pollination the crossing of two different forms of a single trait
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; hereditary material that controls all the activities of a cell, contains the information to make new cells, and provides instructions for making proteins
number of chromosomes in a human sex cell 23
Created by: cquinnd15.org
 

 



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