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Chapter 51

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
testis the primary male reproductive organs, which produce sperm cells and testosterone (singular, testis)
seminiferous tubule one of the many tubules in the testis where sperm are produced
scrotum the sac that contains the testes in most male mammals
epididymis the long, coiled tube that is on the surface of a testis and in which sperm mature
vas deferens a duct through which sperm move from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct at the base of the penis
seminal vesicle one of two glandular structures in male vertebrates that hold and secrete seminal fluid
prostate gland a gland in males that contributes to the seminal fluid
semen the fluid that contains sperm and various secretions produced by the male reproductive organs
penis the male organ that transfers sperm to a female and that carries urine out of the body
ejaculation the expulsion of seminal fluids from the urethra of the penis during sexual intercourse
ovary in the female reproductive system of animals, an organ that produces eggs
fallopian tube a tube through which eggs move from the ovary to the uterus
uterus in female mammals, the hollow, muscular organ in which a fertilized egg is embedded and in which the embryo and fetus develop
cervix the inferior portion of the uterus
vagina the female reproductive organ that connects the outside of the body to the uterus and that receives sperm during reproduction
vulva the external part of the female reproductive organs
labium an insect mouthpart that functions as a lower lip
ovum a mature egg cell
ovarian cycle a series of hormone-induced changes in which the ovaries prepare and release a mature ovum each month
menstrual cycle the female reproductive cycle, characterized by a monthly change of the lining of the uterus and the discharge of blood
follicular phase the stage in which an immature egg completes its first meiotic division
follicle a small, narrow cavity or sac in an organ or tissue, such as the ones on the skin that contain hair roots or the ones in the ovaries that contain the developing eggs
ovulation the release of an ovum from a follicle of the ovary
corpus luteum the structure that forms from the ruptured follicle in the ovary after ovulation; it releases hormones
luteal phase the menstrual stage in which the corpus luteum develops
menstruation the discharge of blood and discarded tissue from the uterus during the menstrual cycle
menopause the upper boundary of the mesosphere, marked by an increase in temperature
bulbourethral gland one of the two glands in the male reproductive system that add fluid to the semen during ejaculation
gestation in mammals, the process of carrying young from fertilization to birth
blastocyst the modified blastula stage of mammalian embryos
implantation the process by which the newly fertilized egg in the blastocyst stage embeds itself in the lining of the uterus
pregnancy the period of time between conception and birth
trimester one of the three equal periods of about 12 weeks into which the human gestation period is divided
embryo in humans, a developing individual is referred to as an embryo from the second through the eighth week of pregnancy
amniotic sac the sac formed by the amnion
chorionic villus fingerlike projections of the chorion that extend into the uterine lining (singular, chorionic villus)
placenta the structure that attaches a developing fetus to the uterus and that enables the exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases between the mother and the fetus
umbilical cord the structure that connects an embryo and then the fetus to the placenta and through which blood vessels pass
human chorionic gonadotropin a hormone that is secreted by the placenta and that stimulates ovulation and secretion of progesterone or testosterone (abbreviation, HCG)
fetus a developing human from seven or eight weeks after fertilization until birth
labor the process by which the fetus and the placenta come out of the uterus
afterbirth the remains of the placenta and the membranes, which are expelled from the mother's body following birth
Created by: FarlowA20