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Biology ch 12

asexual reproduction involves one parent and produces a clone
sexual reproduction involves two parents
examples of asexual reproduction binary fission, budding, fragmentation,
Karyotype used to identify sex or aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes)
chrosomes 1-22 autosomes
chrosome 23 sex chrosomes
homologous chrosomes similar in sturcture and carry the same types of genes, one from each parent
diploid contain a full set of chrosomes form both parents
stomatic cells all body cells: skin, nerve
haploid cells that contain 1/2 the full set of chrosomes
gametes reproductive cells; egg and sperm
how many divisions occur in meiosis 2
in what cells does meiosis occur in sex cells
how many chromosomes end up in the daughters cells half the amount
how many daughter cells result in meiosis 4
Spermatogenesis results in 4 equal sperm cells
oogenesis resluts in 1 large egg and 3 polar bodies
interphase longest phase, contians G1, S, G2
Prophase 1 snapsis occurs, crosing over occurs, spindle fibers form. chrosomes condense
synapsis homologous chrosomes come together to form a tetrad
tetrad two chrosomes or for chromatids
crossing over segments of nonsister chromatids break and reattach to the other chromatid, causes genetic recombiantion
chiasmata where chrosomes touch each other and exchange genes
metaphase 1 shortest phase, tetrads align, indepnednet assortment occurs
anaphase 1 homologous chrosomes seperate and move towards the poles, sister chromatids remaind attached at their centromeres
telophase 1 each pole now has haploid set of chrosomes, cytokinesis occurs and two haploid daughter cells are formed
interkinesis short period of time between meiosis 1 and 2
prophase 2 nucleus and nucleolus dissapear, chrosomes condense, spindle forms
metaphase 2 chrosomes line up at equator
anaphase 2 sister chromatids seperate
telophase 2 nuclei and nucleoli reform, spindle disappears, cytokinesis occurs, 4 haploid daughter cells are produced
independent assortment chrosomes assort independently from one another during meiosis
random fertilization whichever gamete is involved in actual fertilization determines the genes of the offspring
nondisjunction occur when homologous chrosomes fail to seperate at meiosis 1 or when chromatids fail to separate at meiosis 2
Created by: ella27



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