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Microbiology Exam 4

QuestionAnswer
Characteristics of Actinobacteria -Gram positive -High GC content
Species of Actinobacteria -Streptomyces -Actinomycete-filamentous actinobacteria -Yersinia pestis-Plague -Mycobacterium
Sub species of Mycobacteria (non mycelial actinobacteria) -M.tuberculosis-TB -M. leprae-Leprosy -M. smegatis-harmless commensal of human skin
Characteristic of a CNM Group Contains pathogenic actinobacterial species such as Corynebacterium, mycobacterium and nocardia
Slow growing mycobacterium and why M. tuberculosis, has a hydrophobic coat (mycolic acid-fat chains that bind peptidogylcan layer)prevents nutrients from easily diffusing in.
Fast growing Mycobactrium E. Coli, b. Subtillis, Staphlylococcus Aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Latent TB Asymptomatic people who are not contagious but are carriers.
TB disease Active TB, highly contagious.C
what is a Cord Factor 2 long alcohol chains linked by trehalose that allows TB cells to bind together inside of macrophages. cuasing a caseous necrosis.
What is Secondary TB When tubercles rupture, often fatal in immunosupressed or elderly.
How to prevent TB Bacillus Calmette Geurin vaccine produced by cow TB is used to innoculate those at risk.
What bacteria is Leprosy caused by? Mycobacterium Leprae, Part of CNM group and is nonmyceilial actinobacteria.
How is leprosy transmitted? Via person to person contact.
What are symptoms of tubrculoid leprosy? Loss of sensation of the skin.
What are the symptoms of lepromatous leprosy? development of disfigurement.
How is Leprosy treated? Via antibiotics or MDT (multiple drug therapies). May require treatment for life.
When did Leprosy first get reported By egyptions in 1550 BC, in India in 600 BC and in Europe in 62 B.C
Who first linked Leprosy to Bacteria? Armauer Hansen.
Why has Leprosy never been grown in pure culture? Where is it grow instead? Because it perfers a cool body temp of 30 degrees centigrade and is grown in armadillos
Order the following species in order of fastest to slowest Generation time B. subtillis, S.aureus, C.botulinum,P. aeruginosa B. subtillis, S.aureus, P. aeruginosa , C.botulinum BSPC-big shits paint cows
Order the following species in order of fastest to slowest Generation time m.tuberculosis, M.leprae, T.pallidum m.tuberculosis, T.pallidum, M.Leprae MTM-Mitotic tubulin man
Order the following species in order smallest to largest genome P. aeruginosa ,m.tuberculosis, T.pallidum, M.Leprae, V. cholerae, S.coelicolor, B.japonicum, T.pallidum, M.leprae, V.cholerae, P. aeruginosa, S.coelicolor, B.japonicum TMVPSB-Tomoki's Mom Vaps Prunes So boring
What specices of Actinomyces are irregular shaped? Corynebactrium Diphtheriae Arthrobacter Coryneform bacteria
Characteristics of Corynebactrium Diphtheriae -Causes diphtheria(bacteria infection that covers back of throat) -Divides by half snapping mechanism
Characteristics of Arthrobacter -Cell cycle of coccoid->rod->coccoid -irregular branched filaments -Common in soil
Characteristics of Coryneform Bacteria? -Some are club shaped -Rod shaped are arranged in palisades (V) due to mechanism of division. -Commonly found in the soil.
How does snapping mechanism of division work? -Bacteria has 2 thick layers of peptidoglycan, inner layer grows inwards to produce 2 new cells. Once enough is formed tension of it causes outer cell wall to break, except at one point which holds cells together.
Definition of epidemiology The study of the distribution of diseases and tries to create countermeasures to prevent or control the disease. Uses -Microbiology -Ecology -Sociology -Statistics -Psychology
What is patient zero, why is it important to find them? First person to have the disease aka Index case. Useful to be able to identify people who had contact with patient zero.
Who was the first one to utilize methods of epidemeology to determine cause of Cholera in London? John Snow
Define Incidence The number of new cases in a population per time period
Define prevalence total (cumulative) number of infected individuals in a population ○ new + old cases/pop. at risk
Define mortality number of deaths per unit time in an infected population
Define morbidity Number of cases per unit time in a population.
Define endemic disease Disease that is always present in a low frequency in a population. Ex. lyme disease in a state.
Define epidemic High frequency over short period of time.
Define pandemic Epidemic that occurs over a wide geographic area. Ex AIDS
How are viruses transmitted? Inhaled, ingestion or with contact of infected person or via touching of infected area.
Symptoms of Viruses Fevers, chills headaches and aches,
What Causes the symptoms of Viruses Lysis of infected cells or body trying to combat infection.
Results of being infected with virus -Lowers immune systems ability to fight infection, leading to secondary infections.
Define common source epidemic epidemic that reaches apex of intensity in short period of time. Usually result of single source. Ex. Cholera, GI diseases in summer.
Define Propagated epidemic -Host to host transmistion, slow progression and longer period of infection. Ex. Flu
Define Reservoir Source of disease producing organisms. Can be human, environment or animal.
Define symptomatic Showing obvious signs of disease
Define asymptomatic an infected individual who is a potential source of infection but doesn't show symptoms.
Define zoonoses Animal reservoirs of disease that can be transmitted to humans.
Define Vector An organism that spreads a disease from reservoir to host. Ex insects(Arthropods) fleas,
Characteristic of Gammaproteobacteria Accounts for majority of nosocomial infections.
Characteristic of proteobacteria -All share common structure of two membranes and a thin peptidoglycan layer in between. -has gram negative lipopolysaccharide outer membrane with tails that stick out.
Name the 5 major classes of Proteobacteria Alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilonproteobacteria
Characteristics Alphaproteobacteria -Many symbionts
What is rickettsias -intracellular pathogen -clade also includes mitochondria. -Causes rocky mountain spotted fever. -parasitize human endothelial cells -propel themselves through the host cell by polymerizing actin.
What are the 4 main genera of rickettsia? Orientia, ehrlichia and anaplasma
What type of Rickettsia Rickettsia rickettsii- causes rocky mountain spotted fever
Which Major class of proteobacteria are endosymbionts? Alphaproteobacteria, rhizobium, sinohizobium, bradyrhizobium are nitrogen fixators in plant roots.
What does Rhizobium spp. fix nitrogen for? peas, beans clovers
What does sinorhizobium fix nitrogen for? Alfalfa
What does bradyrhizobium fix nitrogen for? soybeans
Characteristic of Alphproteo photoheterotrophs -Generally unicellular Ex. Rhodobacter sphaeroides
Characteristic of Alphproteo oligotrophs -adapted to low nutrient concentrations Ex. caulobacter crescentus
Characteristic of Alphproteo anoxygenic photosynthesis? -uses sulfide for photosynthesis but inhibited by high concentrations, no oxygen is produced during photo synthesis -Can be chemoheterotrophs, photoautotrophic, or photoheterotrophic under right conditions.
Characteristics of Gammaproteobacteria -Largest group of proteobacteria. -Ex. escherichia, salmonella, pseudomonas, vibrio, yersinia
Characteristics of Enterobacteriaceae -Rod shaped -grows in singles, in chains or biofilm
What is endotoxin Lipid A is a endotoxin that is released when gram negative cells are lysed since they are used to anchor the LPS to the outer membrane.
What is a serotype How many types of gram negative bacteria are named based on surface antigens.
H antigen Flagellum
K antigen capsule
O antigen O-polysaccharide only detected if there is no capsule
What species are Type III membrane proteins found in? Salmonella, yersinia, shigella, E.coli, P.aeruginosa, Erwinia
What type of gammaproteobacteria caused the plague Yersinia pestis, Causes bubo or swollen lymph nodes.,
Define systemic infection Can move throughout the body.
Define when an plague infection moves to lymph nodes bubonic plague
Define when an plague infection moves to blood stream septicemic plague
Define when an plague infection is inhaled pneumonic plague
Slyvatic cycle Cycle between fleas and rodents that contaminates soil, flea is the vector
Define when an plague infected human coughs on another human? secondary plague pneumonia
What bacteria causes cholera. Vibrio Cholerae
What does vibrio parahaeymolyticus cause -Happens when person eats contaminated shellfish and is similar to cholera.
Characteristics of Vibrio cholerae -Facultative aerobe, found attached to plankton and copepods. (clams) -Endemic in most oceans. -grows best at high pH and allows malnurished people to be more susceptible.
Which type Gram - or + are more likely to live on the skin and why? Gram positive since they are more resistant to desiccation due to additional layer
What does B. Theta do in large intestine? Breaks down complex carbs into products that can be absorbed by body.
What does E. coli do in the large intestine? Catabolizes gulconate and component of secreted mucus.
How does type of delivery affect bacteria communites in newly born infants? vaginal delivery allows more of lactobacillus to be transfered. Potentially can play a role in early immune system development.
Define dysbiosis imbalance of gut flora.
What is the purpose of American Gut Project? -To define waht a healthy vs dysbiosis flora is.
What species of bacteria are in probiotic? Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium. potentiall bacteroides, escherichia, propionibacterium
How do probiotics work? Inactivate bacterial toxins, create competition between bacteria, upregulates immunity, supresses inflammation, and promotes intestinal barrier function.
What is prebiotic non degestible food ingrediants.
What is the purpose of prebiotics stimulates growth/activity of specific bacteria.
What type of gammaproteobacteria is a sulfur chemoautotroph? beggiatoa
What type of enterobacteriaceae are heavily flagellated and show swarming behavior? Proteus P.mirabilis is pathogen of UTI in patients with long term catheter.
What can betaproteobacteria do? nitrifiers used to ammonia to nitrate- nitrosomnas Sulfur and iron oxidizers-thiobacillus
What betapreoteobacteria is pathogenic in humans? neisseria gonorrhoeae
Characteristics of neisseria gonorrhoeae? -Diplococci, gram negative and found inside WBC. -Constantly evolving and changing surface antigens, preventing creation of vaccine.
What bacteria causes whopping cough? Bordetella pertusis part of betaproteobacteria family.
What bacteria causes meningitis and blood infections? Neisseria meningitidis -vaccines avalible but must be renewed every 3 years in people under 20.
Characteristics of Bordetella pertusis -Small aerobic gram negative, rod -very sensitive to drying and is transmitted through droplets of mucs -paralyzes tracheal cilla making coughing the only way to get rid of it.
What is a major characteristic of Deltaproteobacteria -predator to other bacteria.
Where is myxoccous xanthus found. -soil bacteria that creates fruiting bodies during stravation. -works in groups
What does bdellovibrio species do parasitizes proteobacterial cells. -uses host cells resources to grow.
Characteristics of Epsilonproteobacteria -Micoaerophillic spiral shaped pathogens.
What does the Elpsilonproteobacteria helicobacter pylori do? -causes gastritis and stomach ulcers -destroys mucus layer of stomach linning
How does helicobacter pylor function? -buries themselves in epithelial layer, neutralizes acidic surrounding . -converts urea to ammonia and CO2
What does Campylobacter jejuni cause? -Causes diarrhea and is found in birds.
Characteristics of Bacteroidetes -Gram negative -Breaks down cellulose and polymers like chitin in biosphere -Found in the colon anaerobic
Species of bacteriodetes Cytophaga, flavobacterium,
Gut ratio of Prevotella to bacteroides -People who eat more fiber prevotella -meat then bacteroides
Characteristics of Bacteriodies fragilis -major flora of human colon -breaks down food/toxins. -opportunistic pathogen - has 8 different capsule polysaccharides.
Characteristics of cytophaga and sporocytophaga -obiligate aerobes -degrader of cellulose. -large genome
What firmicutes are endospore formers? Bacillus, clostridium
What firmicutes do not form endospores? staphylococcus, lactobacillus, streptococcu, mollicutes
Characteristics of bacillus Rod shaped, develop endospores
Characteristics of Clostridium Botulinum -produces neurotoxin -anaerobe that grows in canned food.
Characteristics of Clostridium tetani -produces tetnus neurotoxin. -causes muscle spasms -anaerobic soil bacteria
Characteristics of Clostridiales metabacterium polyspora -Grows in GI tract of guinea pigs -forms multiple endospores in one cell -cells undergo binary fission
Characteristics of Clostridiales Epulopiscium fishelsoni -Grows in GI tract of giant squid -Bioilluminscent -Undergoes bipolar divison
What non spore forming firmicute can survive at cold temps? Listeria monocytogenes. -hides in macrophages and is a facultative anaerobe
Characteristics of staphylococcus -Gram positive -facultative anaerobe -Found on skin and in nose
What type of non spore forming firmicutes have no cell wall or s layer Mollicutes. Best known for mycoplasma causes pneumonia and meninigitis.
Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria -fermentative bacteria that can tolerate o2. -fastidious
Does streptococci undergo heterolactic fermentation or homolactic? Homolactic!
What bacteria causes caries? streptococci mutans.
Created by: temok747