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Exam 3

FSN127 Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
A family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols is referred to as: Lipids
Each triglyceride is made up of one ____and three ____. Glycerol ; Fatty Acid
A fatty acid carrying the maximum number of hydrogens is called a _______ fatty acid. Saturated
A fatty acid that lacks two hydrogen atoms and has one double bond between carbons is called : Monosaturated
In general, the more saturated the fat, the more ___liquid/solid___it is at room temperature. Solid
Which type of fat is the most susceptible to rancidity? Polysaturated
One advantage of hydrogenation is that it __increase/inhibits__ oxidation, and improves shelf life. Inhibits
The most predominant lipids both in foods and in the body are: Triglycerides
Phospholipids are used by the food industry as: Emulsifiers
Fats are __hydrophilic/hydrophobic__. Hydrophobic
In the small intestine ____ emulsifies fat. Bile
Which plant lipid has the highest content of saturated fatty acid? Coconut oil
Which has the lowest content of saturated fatty acid? Canola oil
Which has the highest content of monosaturated fatty acid? Olive oil
Which of the following lipoprotein particles has the highest percentage of cholesterol? LDL
Which of the following lipoprotein particles has the highest percentage of triglyceride? Chylomicrons
All fatty acids are essential fatty acids. T/F False
Prostaglandins, thomboxanes, and leukotrienes are: Eicosanoids
Although rare, a deficiency in omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with depression. T/F True
The group of cells, that is the tissue that stores fat in the body is called adipose tissue. T/F True
Whole milk, cream, butter and cheese are major sources of saturated fats. T/F True
Which are major sources of trans fat? Deep fried foods in vegetable shortening, baked goods, and all of the above plus fruits and vegetables. (Only A, B and C)
Avocados and olive oil are good sources of: Monounsaturated fatty acids
Diets containing EPA have health benefits. T/F True
Which food is the best source of health promoting omega-3 fatty acids? Fish
Lean ground beef contains significantly less cholesterol per 3 oz compared to 1 egg. T/F True
Dietary fats can carry with them the four fat soluble vitamins. T/F True
_Visible/Invisible__ fat "marbles" a steak. Invisible
_______have low or zero-calories as a fat replacer, and are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualities of naturally occurring fats, but are totally or partially resistant to digestion. Artificial fats
Low fat diets tend to be low calorie diets. T/F False
Diets extremely low in fat may exclude foods that promote health such as fatty fish and nuts. T/F True
It is better to incorporate foods with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats that with saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. T/F True
The rate and extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used is called: Bioavailability
Vitamins are individual units. T/F True
Which is best stored in the body: water-soluble vitamins or fat-soluble vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins
Which one, because they are not stored well in the body, must be eaten on a more regular basis? Water-soluble vitamins
Which are first absorbed from the diet directly into the blood? Water-soluble vitamins
Which are first absorbed from the diet into the lymph and then the blood? Water-soluble vitamins
Niacin flush can occur when an excess of ____ is taken. Nicotinic acid
Pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine are the three forms of: Vitamin B6
A competing factor that counteracts the action of another factor is called an ______. Antagonist
Which vitamin reduces the risks of neural tube defects? Folate
Another name for folate is folic acid. T/F True
Of all the vitamins, ____appears to be most vulnerable to interactions with drugs, which can lead to a secondary deficiency. Folate
The glycoprotein manufactured by the stomach that aids in the absorption of vitamin B12 is called: Intrinsic factor
Without healthy stomach cells, production of hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor diminishes. T/F True
Pernicious anemia develops because of ______ deficiency. Vitamin B12
Women tend to develop heart disease about 10 years ___Earlier/Later____ in life than men. Later
Trans-fatty acids raise LDL cholesterol levels and are also associated with an increased CHD risk. T/F True
Soluble viscous fibers can reduce the absorption of cholesterol and bile in the intestinal tract resulting in a decrease in blood LDL. T/F True
Plant sterols work by reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol - both dietary cholesterol and the cholesterol in bile. Most plant phytochemicals
Dietary sodium raises the blood pressure of all people. T/F False
Dietary potassium tends to have a blood lowering effect. T/F True
One negative effect of alcohol consumption is that it is associated with increased cancer risk. T/F True
Which is a positive outcome of regular physical exercise? Lower triglycerides and raise HDL
Vigorous physical activity __increases/decreases__ the risk of a heart attack and sudden death in individuals with diagnosed heart disease. Increases
Two metabolic changes that accompany obesity listed in the textbook includes: Hypertension and increased insulin sensitivity
Very high concentrations of triglycerides can cause serious complications including: Fatty deposits in the liver, and acute pancreatitis
Why do people with heart problems take nitroglycerin? Alleviate angina
Researchers have found that people who ate a one-ounce serving of nuts on five or more days a week had a ____increased/reduced___ risk of heart disease compared with people consuming no nuts. Reduced
Nuts may provide antioxidant phytochemicals in the diet. T/F True
The native people of Alaska, North Canada, and Greenland, who eat a diet rich in ______, notably _______have a remarkably low rate of heart disease even though their diets are relatively high in fat. omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA
Omega-3 fatty acids may help protect against heart disease by: Reducing blood triglycerides and preventing blood from clotting
What is the best source of EPA and DHA? Fish
Omega-3 fatty acids may help protect against heart disease by: Lowering blood pressure and defending against inflammation (both of these)
For those people who regularly consume a traditional Mediterranean diet, the incidence of heart disease, some cancers, and other chronic diseases is low, and life expectancy is high. (T/F) True
The Mediterranean diet is rich in what of the following? Unsaturated fat and complex carbohydrate
______is the general term that describes disease of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease
What does CHD stand for? Coronary heart disease
What does CAD stand for? Coronary artery disease
Coronary heart disease is also called: Coronary artery disease
The death of heart muscle is caused by sudden reduction in coronary blood flow is called _________or ______ Myocardial infarction ; Cardiac arrest
When artery walls become progressively thickened due to an accumulation of fatty deposits, smooth muscle cells, and fibrous connective tissue is called a: Plaque
A kind of plaque that is susceptible to rupture, that is lipid rich and has only a thin fibrous barrier between the arterial lumen and the plaque's core is called a : Vulnerable plaque
A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel but remains attached to its place of origin is called a: Thrombus
An abnormal particle, like a blood clot or an air bubble, that travels in the blood is called: Embolus
The inadequate blood supply to tissues due to obstructed blood flow through arteries is called: Ischemia
C-reactive protein is a major indicator of an inflammatory response, and its associated with a decreased risk of heart disease in people. T/F False
High blood levels of lipoprotein is associated with a _increase/decrease_ in the CHD risk. Increase
High blood levels of LDL and VLDL promote atherosclerosis. T/F True
High blood HDL protects against atherosclerosis by removing cholesterol from circulation and helping to prevent LDL oxidation. T/F True
A condition caused by ischemia in the heart muscle that results in discomfort or dull pain in the chest region is called _______pectoris. Angina
An abnormal enlargement or bulging of blood vessels caused by damage to or weakness in the blood vessel wall is called an: Aneurysm
Clinical trials have confirmed that LDL-cholesterol-lowering treatments successfully reduce CHD mortality rates. T/F True
Some beta-carotene may act as an antioxidant. T/F True
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is: Night blindness
Excessive _____may act as a teratogen. Vitamin A
Teratogens can cause: Birth defects
Fast foods often lack vitamin A. T/F True
Massive doses of vitamin A can effectively treat acne. T/F False
Vitamin D deficiency in children is called: Rickets
Vitamin D deficiency in adults is called: Osteoporosis
Hypercalcemia is high blood: Calcium
Hypercalcemia can develop as a result of vitamin ___ toxicity. D
The active form of vitamin E in the body is: Alpha-tocopherol
Compounds that oxidize other compounds are called: Oxidants
Prooxidants are substances that significantly inhibit oxidative stress. T/F True
__________ are substances typically found in food that significantly decrease the adverse effects of free radicals. Antioxidants
______are nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body. Phytochemicals
Pomegranates, berries and citrus have high content of: Antioxidants
Kale, spinach, and brussel sprouts have high content of: Antioxidants
Fatty liver is an accumulation of ______in liver tissue. Fat
Hepatic steatosis is also known as Fatty liver
People with fatty liver will have a ______level of liver enzymes in the blood. Increased
Hepatomegaly is also known as: Enlargement of the liver
Hypertension can occur without any identifiable charge. T/F True
Why does secondary hypertension usually arise? Abnormalities in the organs or hormones involved in blood pressure regulation.
What blood pressure value is regarded as prehypertension? 120-139/80-89 mm Hg
Which dietary pattern proved to be most successful in reducing blood pressure? Emphasis on fruits, veggies, low fat dairy products, and includes whole grains, poultry fish and nuts.
Weight reduction, for a person who is overweight, can __increase/reduce__ blood pressure considerably. Reduce
The diuretics often used to treat hypertension may cause _____ depletion. Potassium
Processed meats, such as ham and sausage, are low in salt. T/F False
________is the failure of the heart to pump adequate blood, causing congestion of fluid in tissue and in the veins leading to the heart. Congestive heart disease
Which results from bleeding within the brain, and ends up destroying and compressing brain tissue? Hemorrhagic stroke
Which results from the obstruction of blood flow to the brain tissue? Ischemic stroke
Which stroke comes on suddenly, lasts for 2-30 min and stops without causing persistent damage? Transient ischemic attack
Thiazide and loop diuretics increase urinary excretion of _____. Potassium
The richest source of potassium are fresh food of all kinds. T/F True
Prolonged ______ can result in potassium deficiency. Vomiting and diarrhea
Which of the following can result in potassium deficiency? (diuretics, steroids, or strong laxatives) Diuretics and strong laxatives
The most common cause of potassium toxicity is consuming a large quantity of foods high in potassium content. T/F False
What is hydoxyapatite? The calcium salt crystal found in bone
The process in which calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals crystallize on the collagen matrix of growing bone, hardening the bone is called: Mineralization
The highest attainable bone size and density for an individual is called the: Peak bone mass
The presence of stomach acid _____ calcium absorption Enhances
What dietary factors enhance calcium absorption? (stomach acid and vitamin D/lactose/growth hormones) Stomach acid and vitamin D and lactose
What dietary factors inhibit calcium absorption? (lack of stomach acid/ vitamin D deficiency/ high phosphorus and high fiber in the diet) Lack of stomach acid and vitamin D deficiency
A disease in which the bones become porous and fragile due to loss of minerals is called osteoporosis and is also known as adult bone loss. T/F True
Which kind of bone has an inner lacy structure of calcium crystals that supports the bone structure and provides a calcium storage bank? Trabecular bone
A vegetarian diet may result in a ______ deficiency. Vitamin B12
______ is found primarily in foods derived from animals. Vitamin B12
______ is needed to convert ______ into its active form. B12, folate
A vitamin B12 deficiency impairs the results of tests measuring which of the following? (intelligence, spatial ability, short term memory) All
The body uses choline to make: The neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the phospholipid lecithin.
A deficiency in which vitamin results in scurvy? Vitamin C
A deficiency in which vitamin results in pellagra? Nicacin
A deficiency in which vitamin results in beri-beri? Thiamin
Unstable molecules with one or more unpaired electrons are called: Free radicals
A deficiency in either which two vitamins can lead to anemia? Folate or B12
A good general rule of thumb is that the best vitamin or mineral supplements are those that are labeled "high potency" False
Vitamin A includes all naturally occurring compounds with the biological activity of _______ Retinol
Retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid are known as retinoids. T/F True
Retinol binding protein is responsible for: Carrying vitamin A in the blood
In the body, ______serves primarily as a vitamin A precursor. Beta-carotene
Which best describes a common characteristic of lipids? They are hydrophobic.
Which of the following are lipid molecules? Triglycerides and cholesterol
Which kind of fatty acid has no double bonds between adjacent carbons? Saturated fatty acids
It is better to use butter in place of margarine because in the process of making margarine, trans fats are generated. T/F False
Lipids are ______molecules. Organic
The essential fatty acids include: linoleic acid and linolenic acid
Why do food manufacturers add antioxidants to foods? To prevent rancidity
Which of the following is formed in the lumen of the small intestine to dissolve dietary fat? Micelles
Which fatty acid has more than one double bond between adjacent carbons? Polyunsaturated fatty acids
One symptom of hepatitis is jaundice. T/F True
Which can occur as a consequence of cirrhosis? (Portal hypertension, gastroesophageal varices and ascites) Portal hypertension, gastroesophageal varices and ascites
Excess fluid in the abdominal cavity caused by cirrhosis is called: Ascites
Which are like varicose veins in the esophagus? Gastroesophageal varices
Loss of consciousness resulting from sever liver disease is known as: Hepatic coma
Which are the neurological functions that can be impaired in a person with a disorder referred to as hepatic encephalopathy? (reduced mental ability, personality changes, disturbances in motor function) All
High triglyceride levels in the blood are associated with increased risk of: Gallstones
The symptoms of water intoxication include: (confusion, convulsion, hysterical laughter) Confusion and convulsion
Hard water has high concentration of ____; whereas, soft water has high concentration of _____. Calcium and magnesium, sodium and potassium
The hormone released by the pituitary gland in response to highly concentrated blood is: Anti diuretic hormone
Salts that dissolve in water and dissociate into separate ions are called electrolytes. T/F True
Which organ plays the primary role in maintaining long-term control of acid-base balance? Kidney
Binders are chemical compounds in food that combine with: Nutrients
Two good examples of binders are that bind to minerals and prevent their absorption into the body include: Phytates and oxalates
Statin drugs are used to raise blood cholesterol when it is low. T/F True
What describes how bile acid binding drugs work to lower blood cholesterol levels? Binding to bile acids in the intestine preventing their reabsorption, thereby forcing the body to make more bile acids from its cholesterol
What lipid is part of biological membranes? Phospholipid and cholesterol
Statin drugs work by: inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and thereby slowing down the body's ability to make cholesterol
In general, as we age, our blood cholesterol levels: Increase
Which of the following improves the sensation of "creaminess" and "flakiness" of a food? Hydrogenation
Which of the following has only one double bond between adjacent carbons? Monounsaturated fat
Which enzyme is found attached to the inner surface of the blood vessel wall and breaks down triglyceride within VLDL particles in the blood? Lipoprotein lipase
Which lipoprotein particle has the highest content of cholesterol? LDL
What is the job of the LDL receptor? To take cholesterol from the blood and put it into cells so that the cells can use the cholesterol
It is recommended that total dietary fat be no more than ____ of the diet. 30%
If you are born with defective LDL receptors that do not properly bind to LDL particles, how will this affect your blood LDL levels? It would increase
The lipid molecular messengers generated from omega-3 fatty acids tend to ____ blood clotting reactions Inhibit
Animal studies have shown that a diet high in saturated fat _____ the number of LDL receptors Decreases
Essential mineral nutrients found in the human body in amounts smaller than 5 g are called______ Trace minerals
Which is an iron storage protein and not one that transports iron in the body? Ferritin
Heme iron is only found in foods derived from: Animals
The body adapts to absorb _____ iron when a person's iron stores fall short, or when the need increases for any reason. More
When red blood cells die, their iron is: Stored in bone
Worldwide, _____ is the most common nutrient deficiency. Iron
What are the three stages of iron deficiency in the order in which they would appear? Iron stores diminish, transport iron then decreases, and then hemoglobin production declines
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are not the same. T/F True
Fatigue, weakness, headache, apathy, and poor resistance to cold temperature occur in: Iron deficiency anemia
The fatigue a person with iron deficiency anemia experiences is the same as that as not getting enough sleep. T/F False
Long before the red blood cells are affected and anemia is diagnosed, a developing iron deficiency can affect behavior such as reducing mental productivity. T/F False
Ingestion of iron-containing supplements remains a leading cause of: Accidental poisoning in small children
With iodine deficiency, thyroid hormone production _____. Declines
Which trace mineral acts as one of the body's antioxidants? Selenium
Chromium supplementation significantly improves the blood glucose status in diabetes. T/F True
Blood total cholesterol levels should be less than 200 mg/dL. T/F True
LDL oxidation ___Accelerates/Inhibits_____ the process of atherosclerosis. Accelerates
Epidemiological studies have shown that as blood cholesterol levels increase, there is a _increase/decrease__ of deaths due to coronary heart disease. Increase
What cell does the monocyte first differentiate into once inside the blood vessel wall? Macrophage
Blood LDL levels should be less than _____mg/dL 130
As macrophages, within the blood vessel walls, consume more and more LDL, they become foam cells. T/F True
Which lipoprotein profile is associated with more atherosclerosis? LDL pattern B
Butter contains significant amounts of what? Saturated fat and cholesterol
Which of the following inhibit platelets from sticking to atherosclerotic plaques? Omega-6 fatty acids
A clogged blood vessel in the brain can lead to a: Stroke
LDL oxidation can occur ________the macrophages within the blood vessel wall. Both inside and outside
If a food is advertised as "cholesterol free" then there is no way it will promote atherosclerosis. T/F False
Estrogen tends to __stimulate/inhibit__ LDL oxidation. Inhibit
LDL oxidation _slows down/ stimulates__ the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Stimulates
When platelets adhere to a plaque they tend to: Speed up atherosclerosis
Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. T/F True
A diet high in trans fat and low in unsaturated fats will_________the progression of atherosclerosis Speed up
Which of the following is formed in the intestinal epithelial cell? Chylomicrons
Which of the following is formed in the liver? VLDL
Which is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids? Fish
Which is associated with a decrease in the risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease? A high blood level of HDL
Essential fatty acids are all made in the body and not required in the diet. T/F False
Which of the following has the job of transporting triglycerides throughout the body? VLDL
Which of the following has the job of transporting cholesterol to non-liver tissue/cells? LDL
Which of the following has the job of transporting or recycling cholesterol from non-liver tissue/cells back to the liver? HDL
The bile that is released into the small intestine by the gall bladder can be recycled back into the body. T/F True
Cholesterol can be used to make: hormones and vitamin D
What happens to blood cholesterol levels when medications are given that bind to bile acids, preventing them from recycling? Blood cholesterol levels decrease
If a person's LDL receptors on their body cells do not bind LDL normally, that is they bind it less tightly than normal LDL receptors, that person's blood LDL levels would be expected to be: High
Which lipoprotein particle is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease? LDL
Which lipoprotein particle is associated with a decreased rick of developing cardiovascular disease? HDL
Which organ produces VLDL and HDL particles? Liver
LDL particles are made in: the blood
The elderly are most susceptible to developing a deficiency in vitamin ____ B12
Which vitamin is needed for making collagen during wound healing? B6
Which is the water soluble antioxidant vitamin? Vitamin C
Breast milk may be low in vitamin D. T/F True
Free radicals are involved in starting oxidation "chain reaction". T/F True
Large amounts of dietary iron can cause oxidation reactions in the body. T/F True
Which vitamin is needed for blood clotting? Vitamin K
The RDAs were developed on the idea of: Preventing deficiency symptoms
Glutathione is an essential nutrient. T/F False
Which vitamin most directly prevents lipid preoxidation in membranes? Vitamin E
What is the distinguishing feature of cirrhosis? Liver destruction and scar tissue formation
Which are water soluble vitamins? Niacin, Thiamin, Folate, B6, Vitamin C and D
Which are the fat soluble vitamins? Vitamin A,D,E, and K
Which refers to the amount of nutrient relative to the energy (kcals) of the food? Nutrient density
Which refers to how well a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body? Bio availability
Which type of fat causes blood LDL levels to increase? Saturated fat
LDL stands for low density lactase. T/F False
Lecithin is an essential nutrient. T/F False
Foods low in cholesterol can still be high in saturated fats. T/F True
Macrophages within the blood vessel wall will eat up oxidized LDL particles more readily than non-oxidized LDL particles. T/F True
Foam cells: are very inactive cells and do not move around
What is the major cause of coronary heart disease? Atherosclerosis
What effects does high levels of blood homocysteine have on the risk of developing atherosclerosis? Increases it
What vitamin has been shown to decrease blood homocytsteine levels? Folic acid
During the progression of atherosclerosis, which of the following appears first in the walls of the blood vessel? A fatty streak
When does atherosclerosis start? Childhood
Atherosclerotic plaques that block a large amount of the blood flow are the ones that cause the greatest number of sudden heart attacks. T/F False
Omega-3 fatty acids ________blood clotting reactions by ________ platelet aggregation. Inhibit, inhibiting
During the development of atherosclerosis, which is the blood cell that enters the wall of the blood vessel? Monocyte
A provitamin is defined as a highly potent form of the vitamin. T/F False
The other name for vitamin C is: Asorbic acid
The other name for vitamin E is: Alpha-tocopherol
Why are liver and kidney function so important to calcium absorption? These organs help to activate vitamin D so that it can stimulate dietary calcium absorption.
Which foods tend to have the highest content of sodium? Processed foods
Physical activity, especially weight-bearing exercise, promote: Calcium retention into the bones
Once dietary calcium is absorbed into the body, the major site of exit is: Kidneys (urine)
A person in positive calcium balance is: Building up bone mass
A diet high in protein can result in _________ calcium loss via the urine. An increase
Phosphorus, oxalate, tannins, phytates, and saturated fat all _______ calcium absorption. Decrease
The potassium content of unprocessed foods is: High
Which of the following forms of iron is only found in animal products? Heme iron
People who do not produce stomach acid will absorb less iron than normal people. T/F True
The more iron deficient a person is the _______ their efficiency at absorbing what dietary iron they don't consume. Greater
Which mineral plays an important role as an antioxidant? Selenium
Which occurs before any of the others during iron deficiency? Depletion of stored iron
Which occurs last, after all the others have started, in iron deficiency? Anemia
Osteoporosis can result from a long-term deficiency in which mineral? Calcium
Which vitamin is essential for calcium absorption? Vitamin D
The fact that vitamin C can enhance the absorption of nonheme iron would be considered a nutrient-nutrient interaction. T/F True
High dietary sodium may __decrease/increase__ loss of body calcium into the urine. Increase
Vitamins are Organic and macronutrients
Which vitamins tend to be stored more efficiently in the body? Fat soluble
Thiamin is a toxin. T/F False
Which vitamin can cause liver damage if taken too large of a dose over a period of time? Niacin
Which vitamin is crucial for the maintenance of the intestinal lining and also the formation of red and white blood cells? Folate
Riboflavin is not a toxin. T/F True
A deficiency in which two vitamins can cause anemia? Folate and B12
Vitamin A is thought to inhibit LDL oxidation. T/F False
Which vitamin is sensitive to light? Vitamin D,A, and folate
Created by: jesskahwiggins