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ecology the study of how living things interact with eachother and with their environment
what are all organism's basic needs? energy and matter
abiotic factors the nonliving aspects of the environment
biotic factors the living aspects of the environment
ecosystem a unit of nature, consists of all the biotic and abiotic factors in a area and their interactions
are ecosystems closed? no
is energy recycled? no, it is constantly being inputed
is matter recycled? yes, it is not constantly added to ecosystems
niche refers to the role of a species in its ecosystem, includes all of the ways that the species interacts with the biotic and abiotic factors
what are two important aspects of a species niche? the food it eats and how the food is obtained
habitat the physical environment in which a species lives and to which it is adapted
how are a habitat's features determined? by abiotic factors such as temp. and rainfall
competitive exclusion principle -a give habitat may contain many species, but each species must have a different niche -two different species cannot occupy the same niche in the same place for very long
if two species were to occupy the same niche, what do you think would happen? -they would compete with one another for the same food and other resources in the environment -eventually, one species would likely outcompete and replace the other
how does energy enter an ecosystem? in the form of sunlight or chemical compounds
producers -organisms that produce food for themselves and other organisms -use energy and simple inorganic molecules to make organic compounds -stability is vital to ecosystems because all organisms need organic molecules -autotrophs
photoautotroph use energy from sunlight to make food by photosynthesis
chemoautotroph use energy from chemical compounds to make food by chemosynthesis
consumers -organisms that depend on other organisms for food -take in organic molecules by essentially "eating" other living things -include animals and fungi -heterotrophs
herbivores -consume producers such as plants or algae -necessary link between producers and other consumers
carnivores -consume animals
obligate carnivores carnivores that are unable to digest plants and must eat only animals
omnivores consume both plants and animals
decomposers -break down the remains and other wastes and release simple inorganic molecules back to the environment -producers then use the molecules to make new organic compounds -stability of decomposers is essential to every ecosystem
scavengers consume the soft tissues of dead animals
detritivores consume detritus-the dead leaves, animal feces, and other organic debris that collects on the soil of at the bottom of a body of water
saprotrophs -final step in decomposition -feed on any remaining organic matter that if left after other decomposers do their work
food chain represents a single pathway through which energy and matter flow through ecosystem
food web represents multiple pathways through which energy and matter flow through an ecosystem
trophic levels the feeding positions in a food chain or web
whats the 1st level? producer
whats the 2nd level? primary consumer
whats the 3rd level? secondary consumer
whats the 4th level? tertiary consumer
what happens to the 90% of energy that's used? its used for metabolic processes or given off to the environment as heat
biomass the mass of organisms at a trophic level
biogeochemical cycles -chemical elements and water that are needed by organism continuously recycle -they pass through biotic and abiotic components
exchange pool -part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a short period of time -ex. atmosphere
reservoir -part of a cycle that holds an element or water for a long period of time -ex. ocean
the water cycle takes place... on, above, and below the Earth's surface
what are the 3 stages in which water occurs? 1. gas (water vapor) 2. liquid (water) 3. solid (ice)
evaporation -occurs when water on the surface changes to water vapor -the sun heats the water and gives water molecules enough energy to escape into the atmosphere
sublimation -occurs when ice and snow change directly to water vapor -also happens because of heat from the sun
transpiration -occurs when plants release water vapor through leaf pores called stomata -the water is a product of photosynthesis
condensation -the process in which water vapor changes to tiny droplets of liquid water -the droplets may form clouds -if the droplets get big enough, they fall as precipitation
precipitation -rain, snow, sleet, hail, or freezing rain -most falls into the ocean -eventually, this water evaporates again and repeats the water cycle
runoff -precipitation that falls on land may flow over the surface of the ground -may eventually flow into a body of water
groundwater -some precipitation that falls on land may soak into the ground -may seep out of the ground at a spring or into a body of water like the ocean -may be taken up by plant roots -may flow deeper underground into a aquifer
aquifer an underground layer of rock that stores water
where does most of the carbon that dissolves from sedimentary rock end up? the ocean
_____ and _____ are major reservoirs of stored carbon sedimentary rock and the ocean
does carbon cycle quickly? yes
when is carbon released into the atmosphere? -cellular respiration -when organisms decompose -human actions, such as the burning of fossil fuels -natural processes, such as volcanic eruptions -warm ocean waters
when is carbon removed from the atmosphere? -photosynthesis (autotrophs) removes carbon dioxide and uses it to make organic compounds -runoff, rivers and streams dissolve carbon in rocks and carry it to the ocean
carbon cycles far more slowly through geological processes such as ______ sedimentation
nitrogen makes up _____% of Earth's atmosphere 78
nitrogen is found in... proteins, nucleic acids, and chlorophyll
nitrogen cycle moves nitrogen through the abiotic and biotic parts of ecosystems
nitrogen fixation -plants cannot use nitrogen gas from the air to make organic compounds for themselves and other organisms -the nitrogen gas must be changed to a form called nitrates, which plants can absorb through their roots
nitrogen fixation is carried out by... nitrogen-fixing bacteria -lives in soil and roots of legume
why is water important to our bodies? every chemical reaction takes place in water
why do plants take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis to make useable carbon-->glucose
why is carbon important to your body? cellular respiration
how does carbon move between living organisms? respiration, photosynthesis, fossil fuels
why is the carbon cycle backlogged with excess carbon in the atmosphere? because carbon stops the sun's rays from going back out to space
what type of organism is needed to modify nitrogen into a usable form? bacteria
why is nitrogen important to your body? proteins
how do animals obtain nitrogen? they eat plants
there is very little phosphorous in the _____ atmosphere
why is phosphorous important to your body? phospholipids, ATP, DNA
how do animals obtain phosphorous? eating
how is phosphorous released into the water and soil? fertilizers, waste, weathering of rocks
Created by: amandathornton



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