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Bacteriology

QuestionAnswer
What does a bacterial cell membrane lack? Sterols such as cholesterol
What are the functions of the bacterial capsule? -Protection from dessication - Promoting virulence - Source of nutrition in starvation
What are the possible functions of the mesosomes? -Compartmentalisation of DNA -Increase surface area for respiratory enzymes
What class of flagella are the fastest? Monotrichous
What class of flagella are uniformly distributed across the cell? Peritrichous
What are the functions of pili? -conjugation -attachment sites for bacteriophage -attachment to other bacteria (biofilms)
What is the main component of the bacterial cell wall? Peptidoglycan
What class of bacteria have a lipopolysaccharide layer? Gram negative
How do we classify/test the difference in chemical complexity of the bacterial cell wall? Gram staining
What is the primary stain in a gram stain? Crystal violet
What is the mordant in the gram stain? Iodine
What is the decolouriser in the gram stain? Acetone
What is the counter stain in the gram stain? Safranin
What are the three growth factors that bacteria need? -Vitamins -Amino acids -Purines/Pyrmidines
What are autotrophs? Use CO2 as their main source of carbon
What are heterotrophs? Take in nutrients in preformed states
What are phototrophs? Use light as their main source of energy
What are chemotrophs? Gain energy by he oxidation of chemical compounds
What are psychrophile? (Give example of temp range) Optimum temperature at the lower end of the temp scale and generally below 20 Celsius
What are mesohpiles? (Include temperature range) These have similar ptimum temperatures to human cell and grow over a range of about 20-45 Celsius
What's classification of temperature must human pathogens be? Mesophiles
What are Thermophiles? (Include temp range) Thermophiles have an optimum temperature in the higher end of the temperature scale and have a range that is greater than 45 Celsius
What are obligate aerobes? Must have oxygen present to grow
What are obligate anaerobes? Must not have oxygen present to grow
What are facultative anaerobes? Can grow with or without oxygen, but prefer its presence
What are aerotolerant bacteria? Can grow equally well with or without oxygen present
What are microaerophiles? Must have very low concentrations of oxygen (2-10%)
What are osmotolerant bacteria? Can grow over a wide range of water activity/solute concentration
What are halophiles? Require a high concentration of NaCl to grow
If conditions are favourable for bacterial growth, does sporulation take place? No
In conjugation, what does the donor bacterium contain that the conjugating one does not? F plasmid
Created by: Jake_Bark