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Earth's Surface Ch.2

TermDefinition
Uniformitarianism the geologic principle record that the same geologic processes that operate today operated in the past to change Earth's surface
Erosion the process by which water, Ice, wind, or gravity moves weathered particles of rock and soil
Weathering the chemical and physical processes that break down rock and other substances
Mechanical weathering the type of weathering in which rock is physically broken into smaller pieces
Chemical weathering the process that breaks down rock through chemical changes
abrasion the grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water,ice, or wind
frost wedging processes that splits rock when water seeps into cracks, then freezes and expands
oxidation a chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
Permeable Characteristic of a material that contains connected air spaces, or pores, that water can seep through easily
Soil the loose weathered material on earths surface in which plants can grow
Bedrock rock that makes up earths crust; also the solid rock layer beneath the soil
Humus dark colored organic material in the soil
Fertility a measure of how well soil supports plant growth
Loam rich fertile soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
pH Scale range of values used to indicate how acidic or basic a substance is; expresses the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
Soil horzion a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above or below it
Top Soil the crumbly, topmost layer of soil made up of clay an other minerals
Subsoil the layer of soil below topsoil that has less plant and animal matter than topsoil and contains mostly clay and other materials
Decomposer an organism that gets his energy by breaking down wastes and dead organisms , and returns raw materials to the soil and water
natural resource anything naturally occurring in the environment that humans can use
soil conservation the management of soil to limit its destruction
crop rotation the planting of different crops in a field each year to maintain the soil's fertility
contour plowing plowing fields along the curves of a slope to prevent soil loss
conservation plowing soil conservation method in which weeds and dead stalks from the previous year's crop are plowed into the ground
Created by: tjg201064705