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A&P II: Test 3

EMCC Beneke

Describe lymph vessels. tiny and colorless, merge to form larger vessles, filter the lymph.
What are the functions of the lymph. protect- allow tissues to heal, transport foreign particles, and filter the lymph.
6 Locations of Lymph Nodes cervical- under the mandible, in front of the ears, behind the ears, deep in the neck. axillary- mammary glands. inguinal viscera
What does the thymus do relative to the immune system? it is where the t-cells mature.
What does the spleen do? stores blood, macrophages, and aides in RBC destruction,
Name some pathogens. viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, parasites.
List the first line of defense mechanisms. (non-specific) skin, stomach acid, respiratory lining.
How does the skin help in immunity. mechanical barrier, helpful bacteria, and sweat & sebum.
List the secondary defense mechanisms. (non-specific) RES, inflammatory response, phagocytosis, nutritional immunity, and interferons.
Describe the R.E.S.. Reticular Epithelial System
Happens during the inflammatory response? redness, swelling, heat, and pain.
Describe phagocytosis and what chemotaxis has to do with the process. phagocytosis- condition of "cell eating". chemotaxis- attraction to a site of infection and stimulated by antigen.
What are t-cells, what do they do, and give the normal count and the abnormal count. cells in the thymus, they are responsible for cell mediated immunity, and the normal count is 1000-1200/cc & abnormal is 500/cc dangerous.. below 200 AIDS
What are the consequences of low t-cell counts? serious diseases. body is unable to fight off infections and harmal disease
What are B-cells? responsible for antibody mediated immunity and responsible for specific circulating antibodies.
What are antibodies? proteins made in response to antigens. made by plasma cells.
What do memory cell do? "recognize" a particular pathogen and destroys the pathogen.
How are we defended against cancer? carcinoma- have our own cell specific proteins. cells attack cancer cells- killer t-cells, macrophages, natural killer cells (NK)
Why must the immune system be suppressed after transplants? t cells attack foreign proteins of the transplanted tissue. first year is critical.
What happens during an allergic response? allergens attach to mast cells. most cells release histamine swelling and serotonin.
Where do cellular wastes come from? by products of metabolism.
What does the urinary system do? removes liquid waste.
List the organs of the urinary system. kidney, urinary, ureter, and urethra.
What do the kidneys do? filters the blood, forms the urine, and changes in blood pH.
Describe the pathway of urine from formation to removal. kidney, urinary bladder, ureter, and urethra.
What are the nephron and what do they do? basic functional and histological unit of the kidney.
What is a nephritic loop? loop of Henle and limbs.
Describe the compostion of normal urine. water- 95%, urea, and uric acid.
What is a normal and abnormal volume of urine output? .6-2.5 liters a day.. .5-.6 cc/hr.......30cc/hr is too low
Describe the ureters. tubular organs, smooth muscle, lead from the kidney to the bladder, and obstructed by a renal calculus.
Describe the urinary bladder. hollow, distensible, muscular organ, and lined with transitional epithelial.
Describe micturition. act of urination, distension, 600ml, uncomfortable @300ml
Describe the urethra, why is it longer in men than women? because men conduct sperm and urine out of there urethra.
Describe how respiratory acidosis occurs. ph 3.5, carbon dioxide accumulates
What are the consequences of blood acidosis? obstructions, pneumonia, empiphysia, or brain stem injury.
Describe how respiratory alkalosis occurs. hyperventilating, salicylic poisoning, and lack of oxygen.
Describe how metabolic acidosis occurs. excess anti-acids, antidiuretics, drainage.
What are the consequences of blood alkalosis? fainting, light headedness, dizziness
List the functions of the male reproductive system. produce and maintain gametes. transport gametes, inseminate female, and produce semen.
What do the testes do? hold semen and promote sperm production
What occurs in seminiferous tubules? spermatogenesis
What do the epididymis do? long coiled cord. stores and transports sperm
What does the vas deferens do? transport sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory ducts
Functions of the accessory glands: prostate, seminal vesicle, and bulbourethral gland. prostate- secrete prostate fluid, propel seminal fluid into urethra during ejaculation. seminal vesicle- sperm travels through. b. gland- adds fluid to semen during ejaculation.
What are the functions of the ovaries? descend during development, hold eggs.
What do the fallopian tubes do? sweep eggs toward the uterus, aid in transport.
What does the uterus do? womb, hold the baby.
Describe the vaginal structure. labia major, labia minor.
Why are the mammary glands studied in the reproductive system? assist in feeding the infant. provides food supply for offspring
Why is lymph percolated? secrete antibodies and enclosed in fibrous tissue.
What is the primary function of the lymphatic system? fight infection
How does fever help humans fight infection? burns out pathogens
What are interferon? warn the cells of danger
What are memory cells and how do they help humans with immunity? recognize particular pathogens and destroy pathogen.
What are autoimmune diseases? List examples. attacks tissues in the body, body attacks itself. rheumatoid arthristis, MS, Lupus
What is the average ph of urine 6.5-7
Where is the renal sinus? medial portion of kidney
What is the normal volume of urine per day? 6.5-2.5 liter/ .5-.6hr
What is an abnormal urine output? .30 too low
Describe the graafian follicle-pre ovulatory. stimulates endometrium, have period.
What becomes of the graafian follicle-- post ovulatory? degenerates into corpus luteum
List the three regions of the uterine wall. endometrium, myometrium, and epimetrium
What is the endometrium? inner lining of the uterus
What is the myometrium? the muscle of the uterus
Why is the fallopian tube ciliated? to aide in the egg moving down the tubes into the uterus
In which layer of the skin are mammary glands found? hypodermal layer
What is prolactin? hormone that stimulates milk production
What is oxytocin? promotes uterual contractions.
What are the functions of the mammary glands? to produce milk to feed offspring
What is the role of progesterone in the reproductive system? stimulates development of endometrium
What is a zygote? a fertilized egg.
Where do sperm mature? seminiferous tubules.
Describe autosomal dominant disorders and give examples and symptoms. equal expression in both genders, physical disorders of the body. ex) Huntington's, Achondroplasia, Polydacity, Familal Hypercholesterolemia.
Define autosomal recessive disorders. Examples, symptoms and risk. both genders are carriers. inherited when both parents are carriers. ex) cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, tay-sachs, PKU
Abnormal chromosome disorder. caused by non-disjunction of chromosome/ gamete genesis. chromosomes fail to separate during anaphase.
Trisomy 21/ Down Syndrome 47 chromosomes. risk: mother's age, increases with age, occurs in 1/800 births. 1/2 live to 50. 1/7 live to age 68.
Trisomy 10/ Edwards Disorder 80% are females, abnormal circulatory development, occurs in 1/8000 births, 47 chromosomes.
Trisomy 13 lethal by 6 months, eyes may be missing, polydactyl, rocker soled feet.
Cri-du-cat/ 45 Chromosomes "cry of the cat", deletion of 5th chromosome, development slow/ retardation
47 XXY/ Kleinfelter's Syndrome predominantly males, tall, infertile have female figure but male genitalia.
47 XYY/ "Supermales" 3% of males in prison and mental hospitals have extra Y. 20% of males over 6ft. more testosterone
47 XXX/ Trisomy X no phenotypic abnormality
Turner Syndrome 45 XO
45 YO spontaneous abortion/ miscarriage. no x chromosome
Describe how sex linked traits are carried. only females can be carriers
Why do sex linked traits occur more in males than females? because males only have one X chromosome
What conditions occur more in males than females? color blindness and alopecia
Why is Huntington's disease a case of study for bioethics? progressive dementia, doctors do not understand where the error occurs
What is mosiacism? two or more populations of different cells in one individual. result of non-disjunction
How are chromosome numbers (1-23) determined? shape and size
What do lymph blood vessels do? protect.
Created by: Jlewis8775



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