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Adv. Bio Chapter 8

Metabolism The totality of an organism’s chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.
Kinetic Energy The energy associated with the relative motion of objects. Moving matter can perform work by imparting motion to other matter.
Thermal Energy Kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms and molecules; energy in its most random form.
Potential Energy The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure).
Chemical Energy Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
Free Energy The portion of a biological system’s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system.
Exergonic Reaction A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
Endergonic Reaction A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
ATP An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
Enzyme A macromolecule serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Catalyst A chemical agent that selectively increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Activation Energy The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called free energy of activation.
Substrate The reactant on which an enzyme works.
Active Site The specific region of an enzyme that binds the substrate and that forms the pocket in which catalysis occurs.
Created by: Mr.Devine