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Ch 13

RNA and Protein Synthesis

TermDefinition
RNA a nucleic acid that contains ribose, involved in protein synthesis
messenger RNA a type of RNA that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids
ribosomal RNA a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes
transfer RNA a type of RNA that carries each amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis
RNA polymerase enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA template
promoter specific region of a gene where RNA polymerase can bind and begin transcription
intron a sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein because it is cut out of the mRNA strand
exon a sequence of DNA that is involved in coding for a protein; pieces that are spliced together to form mRNA
polypeptide long chains of amino acids; another name for proteins
genetic code a collection of codons of mRNA that determine which amino acids are joined together to form a protein
codon a group of three mRNA bases that specify a particular amino acid
translation process by which the sequence of bases of mRNA is converted into the sequence of amino acids
transcription synthesis of an mRNA molecule from a DNA template
anticodon a group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to the three bases of a codon of mRNA
gene expression process by which a gene produces its product and the product carries out its function
mutation a change in the genetic material of the cell
point mutation gene mutation in which a single base pair in DNA has been changed
frameshift mutation a mutation that shifts the "reading frame" of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
mutagen chemical or physical agents in the environment that interact with DNA and may cause a mutation
polyploidy condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Created by: lrlong14