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BIO 182

Chapter 53 Population Ecology

Population Ecology Study of the ecosystem
Name the three ways organisms respond to environmental change: 1. Physiology- 2. Morphology 3. Behavior
Physiology The changes that occur inside their body
Morphology The changes that occur outside the body
Behavior Changes in behavior due to the envirement (hibernation)
Population dynamics Two types 1. Immigration 2. Emigration
Population Dynamics Immigration Will add to population (birth)
Population Dynamics Emigration Will take way from population (death)
Two characters associated in population density and dispersion
Associated in population: density the number of individuals per unit of area or volume
Two types of density associated in population 1. indirect way: counting by nests or burrows 2. Mark: Recapture method: (See notes)
Dispersion associated with population three types 1. Clumped distribution 2. Uniform distribution 3. Random distribution
Clumped individuals of a species together with limited space between eachother Reason: attraction food and attraction to one another
Uniform Individuals of species evenly spread: Reason Repulsion
Randomly It is neither clumped or uniformed No attraction or repulsion
Survivorship curve Measures mortality rate of different species
Survivorship curve Type 1 Low death rates during early and middle life than increase among older age groups (humans)
Survivorship curve Type 2 the death rate is constant over the organisms life span (squirrels )
Survivorship curve Type 3 high death rates for young then a slower death rate for survivors (sea turtles)
Reproductive rate at certain age a single organism has a high reproductive rate
Big bang reproductive: Semelparity is a one time reproduction (black widow)
Repeated reproduction : iteropartiy is a repeated reproduction
Carrying capacity The maximum level a population can reach before it declines
Exponential growth the population expands greatly due to the amount of space and food
K-Selected population: Carrying capacity 1. Will not reproduce alot throughout lifespan 2. Longer lifespan 3. Longer parental care 4. low death rate
R-Selected population: Reproduction 1. will reproduce alot throughout lifespan 2. short life span 3. no parental care 4. high death rate
Created by: TheKamster