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Med Term

Chapter 12: Digestive System

The physician who specializes in the study of disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract (including the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and bile duct) gastroenterologist
The allied health professional who studies and applies the principles and science of nutrition nutritionist
A allied health professional trained to plan nutrition programs for the sick as well as healthy people dietitian
Digestion section that includes the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and the stomach Upper gastrointestinal tract
Digestion section that includes the the large and small intestines Lower gastrointestinal tract
related organs to the digestive system salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
The space between the diaphragm and the groin abdominopelvic cavity
Largest of the ventral body cavities abdominopelvic
The specific serous membrane that covers the entire abdominal wall of the body and is reflected over the contained organs peritoneum
surround the opening of the mouth lips
form walls of the oral cavity that are continuous with the lips and lined with mucous membrane cheeks
Forms the anterior, upper roof of the mouth that is supported by bone. hard palate
Irregular ridges or folds in its mucous membrane lining. Found in the stomach and anterior roof of the mouth (hard palate) rugae
Posterior portion of the upper roof of the mouth (closer to the throat) composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue. soft palate
End of the soft palate that is small, cone shaped projection. Helps produce sound and speech uvula
solid mass of very strong flexible skeletal muscle covered with mucous membrane. Located in the floor of the mouth within the curve of the lower jaw bone tongue
Upper surface of the tongue normally pink, moist, and covered with small, rough elevations (taste buds) papillae
The cavity that consist of the lips and cheeks that help hold food in the mouth and keep it in place for chewing buccal cavity
Lower jaw bone Mandible
Principle organ of the sense of taste and assists in the process of chewing and swallowing Tongue
Process of chewing mastication
Process of swallowing deglutition
_______ pair of salivary glands 3
Mostly water but also contains mucus and digestive enzymes saliva
Two enzymes contained in saliva amylase and lipase
Gums are also known as gingiva
the throat pharynx
adjoins the oral cavity and is the passageway that serves both the respiratory and the digestive systems pharynx
Section of the pharynx leading away from the oral cavity oropharynx
Portion of the pharynx located behind the nasal cavity nasopharynx
The lower portion of the pharynx which opens into both the esophagus and the larynx laryngopharynx
Near the base of the tongue, leading from the mouth into the pharynx (orophayngeal area) tonsils
Peristaltic movements of food down the esophagus epiglottis
Receives food from the pharynx and propels it into the stomach esophagus
Approximately 10 inches long, passes through an opening in the diaphragm into the abdominal cavity before connecting to the stomach collapsible muscular tube
The passage of the food from the espohagus into the stomach is controlled by a muscular ring lower esophageal sphincter/cardic sphioncter
Located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen stomach
The upper rounded portion of the stomach. It rises to the left and above the level of the opening of the esophagus into the stomach. fundus
Central part of the stomach that curves to the right. body
The lower tubular part of the stomach that angles to the right from the body of the stomach as it approaches the duodenum Pylorus/ gastric antrum
First part of the small intestines Duodenum
Regulates the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum. Pyloric sphincter
Depression between the rugae contain the gastric glands that secrete gastric juices containing digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid
Liquid like mixture of food in the stomach Chyme
The small intestines is approximately ______ ft. long 20 feet
The small intestines are divided into 3 parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
The first part of the small intestines (12 inches long) Duodenum
Receives the chyme from the pylorus of the stomach along with secretions from the liver and the pancreas that further the digestive process. Duodenum
Connects the duodenum to ileum. Approximately 8 ft long Jejunum
Last part of the small intestines. Approximately 12 feet in length. Connects at the ileocecal sphincter ileum
Small fingerlike projections villi
Begins at the ileocecal sphincter and extends to the anus Large intestines
Blind pouch, on the right side of the abdomen, that extends approximately 2 to 3 inches beyond the ileocecal junction to the begining of the colon Cecum
Lower portion of the cecum hangs a small wormlike structure known as vermiform appendix
vermiform appendix is approximately ______ inches in length and less than ____ inches in diameter 2-3 inches 0.5 inches
The longest portion of the large intestines Colon
The colon is divided into four sections; Ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmond colon
Begins at the ileocecal junction, curving upward towards the liver on the right side of the abdomen. Ascending colon
Horizontal turn left just below the liver Hepatic flexure
Runs horizontal underneath the liver, below the stomach toward the spleen. Transverse colon
Once the transverse colon turns downward splenic flexure
Passes down towards the pelvis on the left side of the abdomen. Descending colon
At the pelvic brim (curved at the top of the hip bones) the descending colon makes a S-shaped curve. Sigmond colon
Connects the descending colon to the rectum sigmond colon
The last 7 to 8 inches of the large intestines which connects the sigmond colon to the anus. rectum
The opening through which feces are eliminated from the body anus
The act of expelling feces from the body defecation
Located immediately under the diaphragm, slightly to the right. Liver
The largest gland in the body Liver
Weighs approximately 3 to 4 pounds Liver
This organs function is to produce bile for the emulsification of fats in the small intestines. Liver
Cells that produce a yellowish-green secretion called bile Hepatocytes
Responsible for the color of urine and feces. (yellowish-green) bilirubin
Dependent plasma proteins. Albumin, globulin carrier molecules and the clotting factor Vitamin K
Glycogenesis & Glycogenolysis metabolized Carbohydrate metabolism
This organ converts excess amounts of circulating blood glucose (simple sugars) into a complex form of sugar (starches) for storage Liver
The process in which the liver converts excess amounts of circulating blood glucose (simple sugars) into a complex form of sugar (starches) for storage into the liver cells glycogenesis
complex form of sugar glycogen
When your blood sugar is low the liver converts stored glycogen into glucose
Synthesis of cholesterol, of lipoproteins for transport of fat to other tissues, and conversion of fatty acids to ketones to be used for energy production Fat metabolism
Phagocytosis of old, worn-out red blood cells erythrocytes
Erythrocytes are destroyed in the spleen they are broken down into Heme ( contain iron and globin/ blood protein)
The enzymes produced by the liver convert potentially harmful substances (such as ammonium, alcohol, and medications) into less toxic ones Detoxification
Responsible for the storage of the vitamins, iron and copper; fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K, and B Liver
Pear shaped sac located on the under surface of the liver Gallbladder
Approximately 3 to 4 inches long. Connected to the liver via the cystic duct. Gallbladder
Cystic duct joins the hepatic duct to form common bile duct
Main function is to store and concentrate the bile produced by the liver Gallbladder
When chyme enters the duodenum and the presence of fatty content is detected the gallbladder is stimulated to release bile
Elongated organ approximately 6 to 9 inches. located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen behind the stomach Pancreas
Extends horizontally across the body, beginning at the small intestines and ending around the the edge of the spleen Pancreas
Its functions as both an exocrine and an endocrine gland Pancreas
Pancreas manufactures the digestive juices containing trypsin, pancreatic lipase, pancreatic amylase, and sodium bicarbonate. Exocrine pancreas
trypsin breaks down proteins
pancreatic lipase breaks down fats
pancreatic amylase breaks down proteins
sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic stomach content
Pancreas manufactures insulin, which passes directly into the blood capillaries instead of being transported by way of ducts. Endocrine pancreas
First set of teeth are called baby teeth primary/deciduous teeth
Your first set of teeth consist of ____ teeth , that begin to appear around ______ years of age 20 teeth 6 months
Your second set of teeth consist of _____ teeth, that begin to appear around ____ years of age 32 teeth 6 years old
Final set of teeth are called secondary teeth permanent teeth
You typically get your third molar (wisdom teeth) after the age of ___ 17 years old
chisel shaped with sharp edges for biting food Incisor
single point teeth are useful for grasping and tearing food canine
_____ and ____ have flat surfaces with multiple projections for crushing and grinding food premolars & molars
Another name for canine cuspids
Another name for premolars bicuspids
A typical tooth has how many main parts 3
visible part of the tooth crown
covers the crown, the hardest substance in the body enamel
This part of the tooth lies just beneath the gum line neck
The part of the tooth embedded in the bony socket of the jaw bone root
The central core of the tooth pulp cavity/ root canal
Contains connective tissue, blood lymphatic vessels, and sensory nerve endings. root canal
Forms the bulk of the tooth shell, and surrounds the pulp cavity dentin
The dentin in the neck and root area of the tooth is surrounded by a thin layer of harden connective tissue cementum
Begins with the mouth and ends with the anus alimentary canal
An abnormal condition characterized by the absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice Achlorhydria
Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat anorexia
Condition characterized by the loss of the ability to swallow as a result of organic or psychologic causes aphagia
An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. The fluid contains large amounts of protein and electroyltes ascites
An audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis. (rumbling, gurgling, and tinkling noises heard when listening with a stethoscope) borborygmus
Difficultly in passing stools or an incomplete or infrequent passage of hard stools Constipation
The frequent passage of loose, water stools Diarreha
A vague feeling of epigastric discomfort after eating. Involves uncomfortable feeling of fullness, heartburn, bloating and nausea dyspepsia
Difficultly in swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus dysphagia
Excessive leaness caused by disease or lack of nutrition emaciation
The material expelled from the stomach during vomiting, vomitus emesis
The act of bringing up air from the stomach with a characteristic sound through the mouth; belching eructation
Air or gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum Flatus Flatulence
Backflow of the content of the stomach into the esophagus that is often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter gastroesophageal reflux
A yellowish discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclera of the eyes caused by greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood icterus
Icterus can also be called jaundice
Abnormal, black, tarry stool containing digested blood Melena
An unpleasant sensation often leading to the urge to vomit nausea
Common chronic condition of itching of the skin around the anus Pruritus ani
Greater the normal amounts of fat in feces, characterized by frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter that floats steatorrhea
To expel the content of the stomach through the esophagus and out of the mouth Vomit
Decreaed mobility of the lower two thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter achalasia
An abnormal passageway in the skin surface near the anus usually connecting with the rectum Anal fistula
Small inflammatory, noninfectious, ulcerated lesions occurring on the lips, tongue, and inside the cheeks of the mouth aphthous stomatitis also called canker sores
Inflammation of the vermiform appendix Appendicitis
Nutrient malabsorption due to damaged small-bowel mucosa celiac disease
A disease of the liver that is chronic and degenerative, causing injury to the hepatocytes(functional cells of the liver) Cirrhosis
The presence of a malignant neoplasm on the large intestines colorectal cancer
A state in which the individual's pattern of bowel eliminationi is characterized by a decrease in the frequency of bowel movements and the passage of hard dry stools.Individual experience difficult defecation constipation
Digestive tract inflammation of a chronic nature causing fever cramping diarrhea weight loss and anorexia Crohn's disease
Tooth decay caused by acid-forming microorganisms dental caries
An expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis . Diverticulosis describes the noninflamed outpouching or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestines, typically the sigmond colon. Diverticular disease
A term used to decribe painful intestinal inflammation typically caused by ingesting water or food containing bacteria, protozoa, parasites, or chemical irriatants Dysentery
Swollen, twisted (tortous) veins located in the distal end of the esophagus Esophageal varices
Pigmented or hardened cholesterol stones formed a s result of bile crystalization gallstones
An unnaturally distended or swollen vein (called varicosity) in the distal rectum or anus Hemorrhoids
Acute or chronic inflammation of the liver due to a viral or bacterial infection, drugs, alcohol, toxins, or parasites Hepatitis
An irregular protrusion of tissue, organ, or a portion of an organ through an abnormal break in the surrounding cavity's muscular wall Hernia
Inflammatory infectious lesions in or on the oral cavity occurring as a primary or a secondary viral infection caused by herpes simplex Herpetic stomatitis
Absence at birth of the autonomic ganglia in a segment of the intestinal smooth muscle wall that normally stimulates peristalsis Hirschsprung's Disease
A term used to describe an obstruction of the intestine ileus
Complete or partial alteration in the forward flow of the content in the small or large intestines Intestinal Obstruction
Telescoping of a portion of proximal intestine into distal intestine, usually in the ileocecal region (causing an obstruction) Intrssusception
Increased motility of small or large intestinal wall, resulting in abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, and the trapping of gas throughout the intestines irritable bowel syndrome Spatic colon
A precancerous lesion occurring anywhere in the mouth oral leukoplakia
An acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas Pancreatitis
A break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the gastrointestinal tract as a result of hyperacidity or the bacterium Helicobacter pylori Peptic ulcers
A term used to describe a group of inflammatory gun disorders, which may lead to degeneration of teeth, gums, and sometimes surrounding bones Periodontal Disease
Colorectal polyps are small growths projecting from the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum Polyps Colorectal
A fungal infection in the mouth and throat, producing sore, creamy white, slightly raised curdlike patches on the tongue and other oral mucosal surfaces. Thrush
A chronic inflammatory condition resulting in a break in the continuity of the mucous membrane lining of the colon in the form of ulcers. Characterized by large watery diarreheal stools containing mucus, pus, or blood. Ulcerative colitis
A rotation of loops or bowel, causing a twisting on itself that results in an intestinal obstruction Volvulus
Created by: Capty103