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Section 6

Notes from CRC Exam Prep Book

What are the stages of groups? Initial, Transition, Working, Final
What happens in the initial stage in groups?  Time of orientation and exploration  Learning how to relate/behave  Trust  Characterized by tentativeness  Goals  Learning how group functions  Developing norms  Exploring fears/hopes  Clarifying expectations  Determining safety
What happens in the transition stage in groups?  Challenge resistance  Take more risks  Anxieties and fears that inhibit open communication  Test safety and trustworthiness of others  Defensiveness and resistance  Struggle for control  Conflict and confrontation
What happens in the working stage in groups?  Working on issues/goals  Commitment to explore problems  Trust, cohesion, inclusion  Open communication  Self-disclosure  Shared leadership  Interpersonal conflict recognized  Direct communication  Feedback, feeling of support/hope
What happens in the final stage in groups?  Anxiety, sadness, separation  Concerns of unfinished business  ‘what comes next’ fear
What is the leader function in the initial stage in groups? • Deciding on an optimal degree of sharing of leadership responsibility • Deciding on an optimal degree of structuring on part of group leader(s)
What is the leader function in the transition stage in groups? • Challenge resistance • More risk taking • Identification and processing of feelings, thoughts, behaviors
What is the leader function in the working stage in groups? • Continue to encourage facilitative norms and cohesiveness • Reduce activity to allow greater shared leadership • Model and support direct communication • Identify and explore common themes • Translate insight into action by encouraging new behavior
What is the leader function in the final stage in groups? • Deal with members feelings towards termination • Recognize and deal with unfinished business • Identify and reinforce growth, changes, and achievements • Reemphasize confidentiality • Evaluate member growth and change
What are the leadership styles? Authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire
What is the authoritarian leadership style?  Leadership and control are concentrated in the leader(s)  Likely to teach or direct  May be friendly and persuasive  Members may be productive, but not particularly satisfied  Members may feel little responsibility for accomplishments
What is the democratic leadership style?  Leadership is shared  Leaders guide group rather than direct  Receptive to ideas  Provides a problem-solving framework that creates a safe environment  More active participation  Members show more caring and gain sense of belongingness
What is the laissez-faire leadership style?  Leaders are essentially nonleaders.  Nondirective  Very accepting, but removed from process  Serve as resource  Members may experience confusion and frustration  Productivity may be low
What is circular causality? refers to the idea that everyone’s behavior affects everyone else’s behavior
Content versus Process refers to the concrete issue being discussed and process refers to how the issue is portrayed in the family’s interactions
Social Constructionism in Family Therapy o People are seen as actively shaping how they understand the world, what meanings they create, and how these meanings are constructed o Meaning is constructed through social interaction o Therapist is seen as a collaborator with family
Psychoanalytic in Family therapy foundation o Foundation lies in knowing where to look to discover basic wants and needs that keep individuals from interacting in a mature way.
Psychoanalytic in Family therapy founder Nathan Ackerman
What are problems considered in Psychoanalytic in Family therapy? o Problems are identified within people, rather than between people.
What is the goal of Psychoanalytic in Family therapy? o Goal is to free family members from unconscious restrictions so that they can interact as a whole
What is Bowen's Family System Theory also known as? multigenerational or transgenerational family therapy
What are the two key concepts in multigenerational or transgenerational family therapy Differentiation of self and Triangulation
What is differentiation of self? • Idea that social groups tremendously influence the way an individual thinks. • The less developed and differentiated a person’s self, the more they have an unhealthy dependence on and are controlled by others
What is triangulation? • A triangle is the smallest stable relationship system • A two-person system is unstable and forms into a three person system under stress • The third person can be a substitute for conversation or a messenger.
Who founded Experiential Family Therapy? o Carl Whitaker & Virginia Satir
What is the emphasis of Experiential Family Therapy? mutually shared experience of therapist and family
what is the goal of Experiential Family Therapy? increase family members’ capacity to experience their lives more fully by sharing their struggle with the here and now
What is the role of the therapist in Experiential family therapy? to create turmoil then coach family members through experience
What form of therapy is often conducted with two therapists? Experiential family therapy
Who founded Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral family therapy? o Gerald Patterson & Neil Jacobson
What is the focus of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral family therapy? discrete problem areas defined by clear behavior patterns rather than character change and insight
What is the goal of Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral family therapy? modify specific behavior or thought pattern to alleviate symptoms
Who founded structural family therapy? Minuchin
What is the focus of structural family therapy? interactions of family members as a way of understanding the structure of the family
What concepts does structural family therapy include? Fam structure is the invisible set of rules subsystems include spousal, parental, sibling, extended family Bound are emotional barriers that protect fam Therapist create bound, flexibility, mod structure Involves fam mapping, reframing, enactments
Who founded strategic family therapy? Jay Haley
What is the focus of Strategic Family therapy? Solving problems in the present
What is the goal of strategic family therapy? resolve a problem by focusing on behavioral sequences rather than insight
What is the role of the therapist in strategic family therapy? acts as consultant for planning a strategy
Who founded brief family therapy? Luigi Boscolo and Gianfranco Cecchia
Why is brief family therapy popular? economic limitations and introduction of managed care
What is Brief family therapy focused on? solutions
What concept is essential to brief family therapy? Miracle Question!
What are the five level guidance of family counseling strategies?  Focus on individual client  Provide information for family  Provide emotional support for family  Provide structured assessment and intervention  Provide family therapy
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