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Week 11 Animal F&F

Bio 100 animal form and function

Advantages of sexual reproduction offspring are genetically different from parent and are prone to evolutionary adaptation.
advantages of asexual reproduction fast and efficient and all alleles are passed to offspring.
disadvantages of sexual reproduction finding a partner and mating can be time consuming and only half of alleles are passed to offspring
disadvantages of asexual reproduction no room for evolutionary adaptations.
Types of Asexual reproduction Parthenogenesis, budding, fragmentation
Parthenogenesis A females egg develops into a new organism without having to be fertilized by male sperm.
Budding An offspring grows out of parent body.
Fragmentation a parent breaks into multiple pieces each growing into an individual organism.
Secondary sexual charecteristics Sexual selection: Natural selection for mating success.
Intrasexual Deer: males compete for females. Lemurs: females compete for males.
Intersexual Females choose males
Courtship rituals A female grebe requires a male to perform a courtship dance before she will mate with him.
Control of valuable resources female yellow bellied marmots prefer rock outcroppings that provide retreats for escapes from predators. (outcroppings controlled by males)
Gifts up front Female hanging fly will not mate with a male unless she brings him a large quantity of food.
Good looks A female peacock is attracted to the male with the most tall beautiful feathers.
monogamous little sexual dimorphsim (look the same), high certainty of paternity, extensive paternal care provided.
polygynous more ornamented males, some certainty of paternity, less paternal care provided.
polyandrous more ornamented females, little certainty of paternity, less paternal care provided.
Polygamy in elephant seals some individuals have multiple mates while other have few or none.
Male polymorphism in Side botched lizard orange throated males most aggressive, defend large areas with many females.
Male polymorphism in Side botched lizard blue throated males mildly aggressive, defend small territories with fewer females.
Male polymorphism in Side botched lizard yellow throated males non aggressive, mimic female behaviors to sneakily mate with females.
Human semen production seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland.
Human sperm production Vas deferens, epididymis, seminiferous tubules.
Adaptations for sperm competition in promiscuous mating systems Damsel fly shovel penis that scrapes previous sperm from female. Chimpanzees with larger testicles.
Cloaca common opening to the outside of the digestive, excretory and reproductive systems in most non-mammalian vertebrates and monotremes (eg platypus)
spermatheca Sac that stores sperm and delivers it for fertilization of the eggs during ovulation (insects)
External fertilization the sperm and egg unite outside the males and females body.
Internal fertilization sperm are deposited directly in the females reproductive tract and unite with ehhs inside the females body.
Spawning A group of individuals release their gametes in response to environmental cues or chemical signals from other individuals. EG salmon and other fish.
Mating behaviour female releases the eggs in response to being clasped by the male. Eg frogs.
Egg development Oviparity most embryonic development takes place within an egg outside the mothers body. Embryo is nourished by nutrients in the eggs yolk. EG all birds, some fishes, amphibians, reptiles, insects and spiders.
Egg development ovoviviparity Most embryonic development takes place within an egg that remains in the mother body until hatching (or is released just before hatching). Embryo is nourished by nutrients in the eggs yolk. Eg sharks, other fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates.
Egg development viviparity Most embryonic development takes place inside the mother and live offspring are born. Embryo nourished by nutrients in the mothers blood. EG nearly all mammals; also some fishes, amphibians and reptiles.
Hermaphrodites Animals with both female and male reproductive systems.
Animals that are hermaphodites most or all sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, and earthworms. Some nematodes, mollusks and echinoderms. A few arthropods and chordates.
Self fertilizing Fusion of male and female gametes produced by the same individual. Eg Sea slugs
Cross-fertilizing The fusion of male and female gametes from different individuals of the same species. EG Earthworm.
Mutual fertilization EG tree snail.
Unilateral fertilization EG marine flatworm.
Protandrous Having the male reproductive organs come to maturity before the female. EG clown fish.
Protogynous Having the female reproductive organs come to maturity before the male. EG wrasse.
Mammalian blood 55% plasma and 45% cellular elements.
Function of water In mammalian blood Solvent for carrying other substances.
Function of Ions (blood electrolytes) In mammalian blood osmotic balance, pH buffering, and regulation of membrane permeability. Ions EG sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate.
Function of Plasma proteins In mammalian blood Osmotic balance, pH buffering. Fibrinogen is used for clotting and immunoglobulins (antibodies) are used as defense.
Substances transported by blood Nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and hormones.
Defense and immunity cells in Mammalian blood Leukocytes (white blood cells), Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Neutrophils, and Monocytes. !Number per uL of blood = 5,000-10,000!
Cells that prevent blood clotting in Mammalian Blood Platelets !Number per uL of blood = 250,000 - 400,000
Cells that transport O2 and some Co2 Erythrocytes (red blood cells) !number per uL of blood = 5-6 million.
Open circulatory system (tubular heart) Heart(s) and/or body movmenet pump the hemolymph into body cavities (sinuses, hemocoel) and vessels. EG arthropods and molluscs (except cephalopods)
Closed circulatory systems (auxillary hearts) Heart(s) pump blood into vessels, where blood is confined. EG annelids, cephalopod molluscs (squid, octopus) and vertebrates.
Circulatory systems in vertebrates: Fish Single circulation & 2 chamber heart
Circulatory systems in vertebrates: Amphibians Double circulation & 3 chamber heart. Pulmocutaneous circuit
Circulatory systems in vertebrates: Reptiles (except birds) Double circulation & incompletely divided 3 chamber heart. Pulmonary circuit.
Circulatory systems in vertebrates: Mammals and Birds Double circulation & fully divided 4 chamber heart. Pulmonary circuit.
Fish circulatory system description Single circulation. 2 heart chambers. Oxy- and deoxygenated blood do not mix but blood losses pressures in the gills.
Amphibians circulatory system description Double circulation. 3 heart chambers. Oxy- and deoxygenated blood mix but blood is pumped twice and regains the pressure lost in lungs and skin.
Non-Avian Reptiles circulatory system description Double circulation. 3 heart chambers. A partially divided ventricle reduces the mixing of oxy- and deoxygenated blood.
Birds & Mammals circulatory system description Double circulation. 4 heart chambers. Oxy- and deoxygenated blood do not mix.
Coprophagia Animals who consume their own feces.
Diastema Gap between teeth.
Vas deferens Male tube that exchanges gametes
Fallopian tubes Female tube that exchanges gametes.
Created by: Joeyyip13



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