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Biology lap 12

study guide

joint pain and stiffness caused by loss of cartilage oseoarthiritis
rib cage axial skeleton
shoulders appendicular skeleton
cells that secrete mineral deposits that form bone osteoblasts
soft tissue in bone cavities that produce blood cells red marrow
bone with a latticework structure spongy bone
nerves and blood vessels run through this structure in bones Haversian canals
soft tissue in bone cavities that stores fat yellow marrow
cells that break down bone minerals osteoclasts
tough layer of connective tissue surrounding the bone periosteum
the process in which cartilage is replaced by bone ossification
ball and socket shoulder and hip
hinge elbows, ankles, and knees
immovable between skull bones fibrous - structure/craniums
slightly movable between two vertebra caltiagenus
multiple nuclei, voluntary, striated skeletal muscle
spindle shaped, non-striated, involuntary smooth muscle
lines the inside of the blood vessels and the digestive tract smooth muscle
involuntary, striated cardiac muscle
connected to each other by gap junctions cardiac muscle
thin protein filaments in muscle fibers actin
formed by thick filaments to allow filaments to slide past one another cross-bridges
these ions are released within muscle fibers when impulses pass from motor neutrons calcium
bundles of tightly packed protein filaments inside muscle fibers myofibrils
thick protein in muscle fibers myosin
supplies the energy needed for muscle contraction ATP
protection from pathogens, water loss, and ultraviolet radiation are functions of the skin
skin releases excess heat but holds in some body heat true
sweat contains salts and urea
sensory receptors for both pressure and pain skin
skin needs sunlight to produce vitamin D
melanin protects skin by absorbing this type of radiation ultraviolet
structures that excrete salt and water from the skin sweat glands
the outer layer of skin epidermis
a tough fibrous protein that makes up the hair and nails keratin
epidermal cells that produce melanin melancyotes
structures that produce a fluid that kills bacteria sebaceous glands
the lower layer of skin dermis
red welts hives
bumps that become red, may contain pus and may leave scars acne
abnormal growths or sore that do not heal skin cancer
2 types of support systems terrestrial and aquatic
name the plant support systems woody and non woody
trees woody
Turgor pressure Water hydrostatic non woody
name the animal support system None, mineral, skeleton
two types of skeleton exoskeleton endoskeleton
Worm, slug, jellyfish, octopus No skeletal system (hyrostatic)
Usually live in water Slow moving Supported by muscle No skeletal system (hyrostatic)
clams, oysters Non-living mineral support (minerals)
Endoskeleton function support, protect, help movement, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow, CaH, P, Mg
Advantage and disadvantages of exoskeleton - prevent water loss, protect, support, help movement - must molt, limit adult size, vulnerable immediately after molting
breaks down bone Osteoclasts
build up bone Osteoblasts
maintaining bone health Osteocytes
freely movable synovial joits
pivot ulna/ radius
epilloical knuckles
saddie thumb
1+ nuclei cardiac
1 nuclei smooth
state the sliding filament theory 1. releases the neuro transmitter Ach 2. causes muscle to release calcium 3. exposes biding site on actin 4. actin + myosin form a cross bridge 5. Bowerstrokes to bring Z lines closer together
ligaments bone to bone
Integumentry skin, hair, nails
function of integumentry prevent dehydration, protection, relax waste, regulates, vitamin D
living cells, collagen contain minerals endoskeleton
Where are smooth muscles found? digestive system, blood vessels and the pupils of the eye.
What are exoskeleton composed of? Chitin & living tissue
Cranium, vertebral column and the ribs. axial system
What are the functions of tendons? To connect muscles to bones.
What part of the bone contains dividing cartilage cells that increase the size of a bone until a person reaches maturity? The growth plate
What does the body release in response to allergic reactions? Histamines
What is the name of the condition where bone density decreases, causing the bones to become more porous? Osteoporosis
is the place where two or more bones meet joint
What is the purpose of cartilage? absorb impacts as a cushion between bones and to provide a frictionless environment between bones
What is it called when you injure ligaments? a sprain
What are the cytoplasms of old epidermis cells filled with? Keratin
What is it called when you injure a tendon? a strain
What type of bone is found at the ends of long bones and inside flat bones? Spongy bones
What is bursitis? Inflammation of the bursae.
Where are cardiac muscles found? heart
What is the name of the neurotransmitter released into the neuromuscular junction that starts the muscle contraction process? ACh or acetylcholine
What causes the striation in certain muscles? regular arrangement of actin and myosin myofilaments.
Name 2 of the 3 most common forms of skin cancer? Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.
What causes the muscle contraction to end? ACh stops being secreted from the nerve and the process is reversed.
the name of the contracting unit of a muscle sarcomere
What has to happen to the opposing muscle when a muscle contracts? relax
What is the largest organ in your body? skin
What type of muscle contracts rapidly and generates a lot of force quickly? Whit muscle
Where are melanocytes found? epidermis
What are the effects of UV-B rays? rays don’t penetrate as deeply as A do produce sunburns, and increase risk of skin cancer
What is the function of melanin? protect the skin by absorbing UV rays form the sun.
What structures are found in the dermis? Blood vessels, nerve endings, sebaceous and sweat glands, smooth muscle and hair follicles.
What do sebaceous glands produce? sebum
Where is the red bone marrow found? spongy bone
what is keeping non-woody plants upright? The turgor pressure created by water in the central vacuole
What type of bone is dense and found under the periosteum? compact bone
What are the small sacs of synovial fluid found near joints called? Bursae
What is the composition of an endoskeleton? living cells, collagen contain minerals, Bone, cartilage, and connective tissues.
What is muscle tone? Skeletal muscles staying in a state of partial contraction
gliding ankle and wrist
wear and tear of cartilage osearthiritis
light line in sarcomere actin
dark lines in sacromere myosin
functions of endoskeleton stores fat, makes blood cells, support shape, protect organs, store minerals, help movement
cartilengenus rib and backbone
dermatitis rash or inflammation, itching and burning
wounds open broke in skin
burns caused by heat, chemicals, shock or radition
motor neutrons release chemical messenger ACH into muscle fiber
vitamin D helps w/ the absorption of calcium
regulation of body temp evaporation cools body
protection keeps out bacteria
tetanus causes muscle fibers to lock in continuous contraction
muscle dystrophy wasting away of skeletal muscles
Breaks down fat lipase
Absorb fats and fatty acids lymph vessels
What is the purpose of the excretory system? remove metabolic wastes from the body and maintain homeostasis
What organs are involved in the excretory system? The skin, lungs, liver, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
How does the skin help remove waste? sweating
How do the lungs excrete wastes? carbon dioxide, a waste of cellular respiration is released when breathing
What does the kidney do? filtering process, the kidneys remove excess water, urea and metabolic wastes from the blood
outer portion Cortex
inner sections medulla
dip in oval structure pelvis
tube leading from kidney ureter
dirty blood enters renal artery
clean blood exists renal vein
actual filtering unit of the kidney nephron
How does the nephron filter blood? Filtration Reabsorption Secretion
Filtration of blood mainly occurs in the glomerulus
Created by: fikott1



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