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Genetics

Science

QuestionAnswer
Put the following in order from largest to smallest: Gene, DNA, cell, nucleus, chromosome. Cell, nucleus, chromosomes, DNA, genes.
The result of activated genes. Genetic expression.
The way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait. Expressed.
True or False: All cells in a person's body have identical DNA. True.
True or False: A cell uses all of the genetic information it contains. False, it only uses some of its genetic information, or what is necessary to operate the cell's function.
How does differentiation occur? Only some genes in a cell are activated and used.
True or False: The environment can affect the way genes are expressed. True.
The separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in any single gamete. Segregation.
The process or act of exchanging genes between chromosomes, resulting in a different genetic combination and ultimately to the formation of unique gametes with chromosomes that are different from those of its parents. Recombination.
One member of a pair of genes occupying a specific spot on a chromosome that controls the same trait. Alleles.
Genetic material in the chromosome. DNA.
What is the structure of DNA? A polymer of repeating nucleotides.
A basic unit of DNA . Nucleotide.
What are nucleotides composed of? A phosphate group, five carbon sugar, nitrogenous base.
What sugar does DNA contain? Deoxiribose.
Base pairing rule for DNA. A and T, G and C.
Describe the Watson and Crick Model. Two chains of nucleotides in a ladder- like structure.
What are the sides of DNA composed of? Phosphates and sugars.
What is attached to each sugar molecule? Nitrogenous base.
How are bases attached together? Weak hydrogen bonds.
What shape is DNA in? Double helix.
Steps for DNA replication. 1 . The hydrogen bonds break and the double stranded DNA unzips. 2. Free nucleotides attach themselves to the hydrogen bonds. 3. Two identical forms of DNA are now formed.
Where does DNA replication occur? Nucleus.
RNA is ____________ stranded. Single.
Function of RNA. Make proteins.
Structure of RNA. Phosphate group, five carbon sugar, base.
What is the sugar for RNA? Ribose.
Look at diagram for DNA/RNA. :D
What base does RNA not have that DNA does, and what base replaces it? T, U.
Where is RNA found? Nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosomes.
Where is DNA found? Nucleus.
How many types of DNA are there? One.
Types of RNA. mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA.
Carries the hereditary information for protein synthesis from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Messenger RNA.
Carries an amino acid to the mRNA in protein synthesis, made of amino acids and anticodon. Transfer RNA.
Type of RNA that is found in ribosomes. rRNA.
Look at practice questions. :D
A group of three bases in a mRNA sequence that specifies a particular amino acid. Triplet code/Codon.
A sequence of three bases on tRNA that is complimentary to a mRNA codon and specifies the amino acid that the tRNA. Anticodon.
The copying of a genetic message into a molecule of mRNA. Transcription.
Where does transcription occur? In the nucleus.
What happens during transcription? The DNA unzips along the weak hydrogen bonds, free RNA nucleotides copy genetic hereditary information, synthesizing mRNA.
The process by which the information coded in RNA is used for the assembly of a particular amino acid sequence. Translation.
Where does translation occur? In the ribosome.
What happens during translation? Message gets read and interpreted into a polypeptide chain.
The hypothesis that states that every gene directs the synthesis of a particular polypeptide chain. One gene one polypeptide hypothesis.
Steps of protein synthesis. 1. DNA serves as a template for mRNA 2. mRNA copies the DNA (transcription) 3. mRNA transfers the code from the nucleus to the ribosome 4. tRNA molecules bring the amino acids to the ribosomes
Steps of protein synthesis. (Part 2) 5. tRNA attaches to mRNA and a chain of amino acids forms with a specific shape sequence 6. Proteins detach from the RNA, RNA gets recycled
What determines the function of the protein formed? The shape of the protein.
Created by: emarciante9