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HSE Life science

vocabulary to help with life science unit

cell the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
Unicellular consisting of a single cell (of protozoans, certain algae and spores, etc.)
Multicellular (of an organism or part) having or consisting of many cells.
Cell membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell.
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
Prokaryotes a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Nucleus the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
Eukaryotic cells an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaebacteria.
Cell wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct.
Glucose a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates.
Chlorophyll a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring.
Carbohydrates any of a large group of organic compounds occurring in foods and living tissues and including sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Cellular respiration the oxidation of organic compounds that occurs within cells, producing energy for cellular processes.
Digestive system the system by which ingested food is acted upon by physical and chemical means to provide the body with absorbable nutrients and to excrete waste products;
Esophagus the part of the alimentary canal that connects the throat to the stomach; the gullet.
Stomach the internal organ in which the major part of the digestion of food occurs, being (in humans and many mammals) a pear-shaped enlargement of the alimentary canal linking the esophagus to the small intestine.
Small intestine the part of the intestine that runs between the stomach and the large intestine; the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum collectively
Large intestine the cecum, colon, and rectum collectively.
Saliva watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion
Enzymes a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
Tissues any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
Organs a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function, such as the heart or liver in humans.
Circulatory system the system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glands.
Heart a hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation.
Capillaries any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
Veins any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart.
Arteries any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood (mainly that which has been oxygenated) is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.
Respiratory system the system by which oxygen is taken into the body and an exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Trachea a large membranous tube reinforced by rings of cartilage, extending from the larynx to the bronchial tubes and conveying air to and from the lungs; the windpipe.
Lungs each of the pair of organs situated within the rib cage, consisting of elastic sacs with branching passages into which air is drawn, so that oxygen can pass into the blood and carbon dioxide be removed.
Bronchi any of the major air passages of the lungs that diverge from the windpipe.
Bronchioles any of the minute branches into which a bronchus divides.
Alveolus any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange
Rectum the final section of the large intestine, terminating at the anus.
Nervous system the bodily system that in vertebrates is made up of the brain and spinal cord, nerves, ganglia, and parts of the receptor organs and that receives and interprets stimuli and transmits impulses to the effector organs
Brain an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity.
Spinal cord the cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissue that is enclosed in the spine and connects nearly all parts of the body to the brain, with which it forms the central nervous system.
Nerves (in the body) a whitish fiber or bundle of fibers that transmits impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord, and impulses from these to the muscles and organs.
Cerebellum the part of the brain at the back of the skull in vertebrates. Its function is to coordinate and regulate muscular activity.
Brainstem the central trunk of the mammalian brain, consisting of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain, and continuing downward to form the spinal cord.
Infection the process of infecting or the state of being infected
Bacteria a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease.
Viruses an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host
Immune system the bodily system that protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues by producing the immune response and that includes especially the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, special deposits of lymphoid tissue
Antibodies a blood protein produced in response to and
Immunization the action of making a person or animal immune to infection, typic ally by inoculation.
Nutrients a substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and the maintenance of life.
Proteins any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms,
Fats a natural oily or greasy substance occurring in animal bodies, especially when deposited as a layer under the skin or around certain organs
Vitamin any of a group of organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and nutrition and are required in small quantities in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the body
Minerals a solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence.
Drugs a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body
Drug abuse the habitual taking of addictive or illegal drugs.
Addiction the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity.
Psychological dependence an addiction to a substance that is based on your mindset
Habituation the action of habituating or the condition of being habituated.
Inhalants a medicinal preparation for inhaling.
Species a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
Asexual reproduction reproduction (as cell division, spore formation, fission, or budding) without union of individuals or gametes
Sexual reproduction the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes).
Sperm semen.
Ova a mature female reproductive cell, especially of a human or other animal, that can divide to give rise to an embryo usually only after fertilization by a male cell.
Traits a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person
Heredity the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
Purebread (of an animal) bred from parents of the same breed or variety.
Genes (in informal use) a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.:
Alleles one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Dominant allele the powerful or influential one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome
Recessive allele relating to or denoting heritable characteristics controlled by genes that are expressed in offspring only when inherited from both parents, i.e., when not masked by a dominant characteristic inherited from one parent.
Hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse).
Chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
Amino acid a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
Genetic code the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
Human Genome the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.
Evolution the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.
Adaptation the action or process of adapting or being adapted.
Natural selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring
Variations a different or distinct form or version of something.
Genetic variation Adaptive characterized by or given to adaptation.: "mutation is ultimately essential for adaptive evolution in all populations"
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Mutation the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form
Ecosystem a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
Producers makes, grows, or supplies goods
Consumers uses producers growth for food
Food web a system of interlocking and interdependent food chains
Created by: rhart1973



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