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Reading and Writing

Importance of Reading and Writing in Communication

Processing Speed Ability to retrieve quickly the names of familiar symbols, such as letters and digits
Memory Ability to remember the pronunciation of familiar words in print
Automaticity The ability tor had connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, and automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading, such as decoding
Prolonged Awareness Ability to reflect phoneme segments of speech
Prolonged Awareness The number one predictor of a child's reading ability
Oral Language Phonological awareness and print and alphabetic concepts are learned within a stimulating oral language environment
2100 High-income children hear approximately how many word/hour compared to economically depressed children only hear 600 words/hour ?
Reading A process by which one constructs meaning from printed symbols
Indirect Word identification Decoding (sounding out words); Sound symbol correspondences
Direct Word Identification Sight word reading; Visual, orthographic representations (e.g., tion=shun)
Text Comprehension How written language is understood; How meaning is derived and interpreted; Culmination of word recognition, vocabulary knowledge, listening comprehension and general cognitive skills
Preschool Age where word awareness, syllable awareness, and rhyming is expected to develop
Early Kindergarten Age where beginning of sound awareness, sound blending, and onset-rime is expected to develop
Kindergarten Age where phoneme identification and sound segmenting is expected to develop
Environmental Print Awareness Children recognize familiar symbols and demonstrate knowledge that print carries meaning
Concepts of Print Children demonstrate accepted standards of practice for interacting with print
Alphabetic Letter Knowledge Children recognize printed letters and understand the letter-sound relationship
Stage 0 Stage of reading development involving pre-reading/emergent reading
Stage 1 Stage of reading development involving initial reading or decoding
Stage 2 Stage of reading development involving confirmation
Stage 3 Stage of reading development involving reading for learning the new
Stage 4 Stage of reading development involving multiple viewpoints
Stage 5 Stage of reading development involving construction and deconstructions
Reading Goes from grapheme to phoneme
Spelling Goes from phoneme to grapheme
Spelling A major task in learning to read and spell is to become sufficiently familiar with the ____ of words so that information about their letters is retained in memory for later reading and spelling
40 Distinctive sounds in English?
70 Letter/Letter-comninations to represent English sounds?
Orthographic knowledge Knowledge of the spelling patterns of words stored in memory that do not conform to regular spelling patterns
Mingle Knowledge needed to spell= spelling patterns, e.g. _____?
PA Allows student to segment words into phonemes
Orthographic knowledge Allows student to recognize that some letter combinations are allowed and others are not
Morphological knowledge Allows student to recognize base words and their inflected forms
Reading This acquisition begins long before the learner receives formal instruction
First What grade should children learn to decode in to prevent subsequent reading failure?
Emergent SLPs participate in ______ literacy preventative interventions to reduce the chance of reading failure in later school years
Screennings Emergent literacy intervention used for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten students
RTI Emergent literacy intervention model used for school-age children
Developmental Dyslexia Most common learning disability
ACT Replaces No Child Left Behind
ESSA Contains new literacy program that replaces NCLB's Early Reading First and Reading First programs



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