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NYS LE Topic 1

Similarities and Differences among Living Things

Metabolism The sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in a cell
Homeostasis Maintaining a balance internally, even when external factors change
Cell building block of all living things
Cellular Respiration breaking down nutrients to release energy (glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide and water)
Chloroplast part of a cell that turns sunlight into a food source (photosynthesis)
Diffusion movement of particles from high concentration to low (with the concentration gradient). No energy required.
Active Transport movement of particles from low concentration to high (against their concentration gradient). Requires energy (ATP)
Mitochondria in all cells. It’s where sugars are broken down to make ATP (energy)
Organ system collection of organs doing a similar job (accomplishing a goal)
Organism collection of organ systems, making a whole living thing.
Tissue collection of cells doing the same job
Organ collection of tissues doing the same job
Organelle functional parts of a cell. Each one has a different job.
Ribosome little dots in cytoplasm or on the ER. All cells. Make proteins.
Nucleus control center of the cell. Contains the genetic information.
Synthesis “to make,” usually referring to substances in the body like proteins
Excretion getting rid of waste products
Glucose A simple sugar C6H12O6 (1:2:1). Needed by all living things for energy
Amino Acids the building blocks that are assembled into proteins at ribosomes
Cell membrane differentially permeable outer border of cells. It is a phospholipid bilayer
Cell respiration energy producing reaction that occurs at mitochondria. Sugars are broken down to release energy (ATP), carbon dioxide and water.
Circulation movement or cycling of materials in an organism
Cytoplasm the fluid environment inside cell, it’s mainly water.
Digestion the process that breaks large food molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) into smaller pieces for absorption into the bloodstream
Enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things
Hormone a chemical made by the endocrine system that travels to body tissues and causes a response
Immunity the body’s ability to destroys pathogens (foreign invaders) before they cause disease
Inorganic a chemical that does not contain Carbon and Hydrogen
Organic a chemical that contains Carbon and Hydrogen
Receptor molecule proteins in the cell membrane that receive chemical messages from other cells
Reproduction process by which organisms make new organisms
(Cellular) Respiration process that releases energy found in chemical bonds so it can be turned into usable energy. Occurs in the MIGHTY mitochondria
Vacuole a storage sac within a cell that may contain substances like food, water or wastes
Created by: etucci



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