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biodiversity C5

What is biodiversity, threats, conserving

QuestionAnswer
The variety of genes or inheritable characteristics that are present in a population.. example various colors of Asian ladybird beetles from reddish, light orange, to yellow genetic diversity
why is genetic diversity important when there is genetic diversity in a population it increases that chances that some members of the species will survive a change in the environment or an outbreak of disease
explain species diversity this is the variety of life in an area that is determined by the number of different species in that area... there is generally more species diversity toward the equator
Why is biodiversity important it increases the stability of an ecosystem and the health of the biosphere
Variety of ecosystems in the biosphere is called ____.. all the ecosystems on earth support a diverse collection of organisms ..different locatons around the world have different abiotic factors that support different types of life ecosystem diversity
Name the 3 types of biodiversity genetic, species, and ecosystem
List reasons that it is important to have biodiversity 1. direct economic value ( provide food, clothing, energy, medicine, shelter ) 2. organisms may provide genes that may be needed in future 3. healthy biosphere provides services ( provide oxygen etc)4. beauty and inspiration 5. scientific value
The gradual process of species becoming extinct.. A natural process of extinction that happens as ecosystems are chanced background extinction
Explain what worries scientists about the rate of extinction there is a worry about the increase in the rate of extinction. the current rate of extinction is 1000x more than the background extinction rate
Scientists are worried we are witnessing ____ give the definition of this.... a period of mass extinction..... event in which a large percentage of all living species become extinct in a relatively short period of time
What was the last mass extinction on earth the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 mya
Scientists point out that the current high rate of extinction is due to the activities of a single species Homo sapiens... humans
excessive use of species that have economic value is a threat to biodiversity called overexploitation
hunting bison because of meat and hides that could be sold commercially ... almost caused their extinction ( they were also hunted for sport) is an example of overexploitation
Threat to biodiversity that used to be #1_____ has now been taken over by ____ historical number 1 was overexploitation.... NOW IT IS LOSS OR DESTRUCTION OF HABITAT
Two ways that habitats can be lost... both start with a D... these are threats to biodiversity habitat is destroyed or disrupte
an example of destruction of habitat ... a place were native plants are being replaced with agricultural crops clearing of tropical rain forests
was is meant by disruption of habitat... give an example with something that happened off the coast of Alaska declining numbers of one member of the food web can affect other members and affect the entire ecosystem. harbor seas and sea lions declined... the whales ate more sea otters. less sea otters lead to more urchins eating kelp and hurt the kelp forest
when one species plays a very large role in the ecosystem that species is called a keystone species
the separation fo an ecosystem into small pieces of land .. that makes the habitat smaller to support fewer species, reduces reproduction opportunities ... smaller, separated, less genetically diverse pops. can respond to changing environments this is a threat to biodiversity called habitat fragmentation
happens when a large ecosystem is carved into smaller pieces that makes different environmental conditions along the boundaries of an ecosystem edge effect
what is happening when the edge of a forest near a road has different abiotic factors (temp./wind, and humidity) than the interios of the forest this is an example of the edge effect
Edge effects are not always a disadvantage for all species... It depends on the various organisms .... Range of ( from c3.. page 61) Range of tolerance.. different species have different optimum zones... and intolerance zones... remember they have various adaptations for an area
What chemical pesticide most likely played a role in the near extinction of the American bald eagle and peregrin falcon. The toxic effects were discovered ant the use was banned in some parts of the world. DDT
Briefly describe the story of DDT and the American bald eagle DDT was ingested and accumulated in the tissues allowing the concentration of the toxic substances to increase as the trophic level increased. Eagles are at the top of the food chain. It caused thin eggshells and death to developing birds.
what process is occuring when the concentration of toxic substances is pretty low entering the food web but the concentration of toxic substances increase as it spreads to higher trophic levels biological magnification ( be sure to know that DDT is an example of this)
How is acid precipitation affecting biodiversity? when fossil fuels burn, SOX and NOX are released into the atmosphere ..they react with the water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid . The acids fall to earth as rain etc and makes acidic conditions.
What problems result from acid precipitation This can remove nutrients from the soil, it can damage plant tissues, slows plant growth, and can kill fish if the acid concentration in lake is high
Describe the water pollution called EUTROPHICATION (yoo troh fih KAY shun) fertilizers, animals wastes, and sewage rich in nitrogen or phosphosus get into water and cause too much algae growth. The algae use much oxygen during rapid growth and the decaying process after they die. Causing other organisms to suffocate
What term describes a population explosion of algae and what results An algae bloom... they use up oxygen rapidly and cause other organisms to suffocate... but also some algae give off toxins that poison the water supply
What have humans done to the rate of eutrophication Eutrophication is a natural process.. many lakes at lower altitudes are nutrient rich or Eutrophic.. and are full of life... BUT WE HAVE ACCELERATED THE RATE
What is the definition of introduced species nonnative species that are intentionally or unintentionally transported to a new habitat
What happens if species are introduced in a new habitat The population does not have natural controls such as predators, parasites or competition so they often reproduce in large numbers and become INVASIVE ( also called INVASIVE species)
What is important concerning natural resources in the future because of rising human population growth and an increased rate of consumption of natural resources WE NEED A LONG TERM PLAN FOR THE USE AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES
What are two groups of natural resources renewable and nonrenewable
What is a renewable resouce and give a few examples they are replaced by natural processes father than they are consumed... Solar Energy, Agricultural plants (growing bamboo, cotton) , animals, , clean water, clean air
What is something we need to remember about renewable resources and any resource They are not unlimited ... if demand exceeds supply of any resource.. the resource might become depleted
What is the definition of a nonrenewable resource they are found in limited amounts or are replaced by natural processes over extremely long periods of time
Name some nonrenewable resources fossil fuels, mineral supplies ( such as uranium) AND SPECIES if the last of the species dies ( becomes EXTINCT)
Explain the difference between cutting a single tree or a small group of trees in a forest vs clearing the entire forest the single tree or small group of trees in a large forest is renewable because replacement trees can be planted or regrow from seeds in soil. if you clear the whole forest the organisms in the forest have lost their habitat .. very difficult to replace.
What is it called when using resources at a rate in which they can be replaces or recycles while preserving the environmental halth of the biosphere sustainable use
What is CONSERVATION of resources reducing the amount of resources consumed, recycling things that can be recycled, preserving ecosystems, and using them in a responsible manner
Give 3 general ways to protect biodiversity 1. having protected areas where biodiversity can flourish 2. identifying HOT SPOTS to focus work efforts 3. Building corridors between habitat fragments
What has the united nations done to protect biodiversity they have Biosphere reserves and World Heritage Sites ( some are megareserves)
Describe the concept of a megareserve and how it works with sustainable use these areas have one or more zones that are protected from human activity by buffer zones.. The buffer zones allow sustainable use of resources. it creates a large managed area for biodiversity and resources for locals
If deer can safely travel between two habitat fragments.. they are probably using ____ a habitat corridor
What are two things that must be true about a biodiversity hot spot there are about 34 internationally recognized hot spots 1. they have to have high levels on endemic species 2. they have to have critical levels of habitat loss
what is meant by endemic species a species that is only found in a specific geographic area
What is the difference between an introduced (invasive) species, a keystone species, and an endemic species introduced: nonnative species in a new habitat(causes problems) keystone species: a species that plays a large role in an ecosystem endemic species: a species only found in a certain area
What biodiversity hot spot has the Henry Doorly Zoo been involved with --this area has lemurs and the fossa ( some penguins got their by accident in an animated movie) Madagascar
Are all biologist on board with the idea of focusing on hotspots to save biodiversity NO... read page 133
How can habitat corridors be useful they are passageways between habitat fragments allowing organisms to move safely.. it makes a larger piece of land ( to sustain a wider variety of species).. an allows for more genetic variation
Do habitat corridors completely solve the problem of habitat fragmentation NO... diseases can pass from one area to the next and it can make more edges .. ONE LARGE HABITAT HAS FEWER EDGES.. but often a large habitat is hard to preserve
Bioremediation is a method of _____... What is bioremediation speeding up the recovery process of a damaged ecosytem... using organisms like prokaryotes ( bacteria), fungi, or plants to detoxify a polluted area
what process is occurring when plants are planted in contaminated soil. The plants store the toxic materials in their tissues and when harvested the toxic materials are removed from the ecosystem bioremediation
Name two important bills that have helped to legally protect biodiversity Endangered Species Act (1973) CITES ( convention on international traid in endangered species) ( 1975)
which bill outlawed the trade of endangered species and animal parts such as ivory elephant tusks and rhino horns CITES
Which of the following represents and indirect economic value of biodiversity: food, clothing, flood protection, medicines flood protection
what word describes this collection of locations.. a forest, a freshwater lake, an estuary, and a prairie? ecosystem diversity
Which of the following is NOT a way in which a species lose their habitat: background extinction, destruction, disruption, pollution background extinction
Created by: shemehl