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Dental anesthesia

What does the Central Nervous system consist of, what does it do? Brain and spinal cord, overall control center of the body.
The brain consists of what four major components? Cerebral cortex, core of the brain, the cerebellum, the brainstem
The cerebral cortex is responsible for what? Thought, learning, memory, consciousness, feeling sensations(pain heat), and initiation of muscle movement
What happens in the core of the brain? Impulses pass to or from cerebral cortex. Relay station between sensory inputs from periphery of the body to the cerebral cortex.
What does the cerebellum do? It's the coordinating center for both sensory receptors(vision and hearing) and coordination of movement
Where is the brainstem located? Between the brains core and the spinal cord inferiorly
What does the brainstem consist of? And what does it control? The midbrain,pons(movement),and the medulla(BP,HR,respiration,digestion). Contains control centers for autonomic nervous system functions. Also contains the reticular formation responsible for maintenance of consciousness or arousal. Pons/medulla are the
What does the peripheral Nervous System-PNS consist of? Nerves that carry impulses away from the central nervous system to various parts of the body and from the periphery back to CNS. Sensory nerves- conduct message regarding environment(pain/touch)back to CNS. Motor nerves-carry out response from CNS to a mu
What are the 2 components of the peripheral Nervous system? Cranial nerves(base of brain) and the Spinal nerves(from spinal cord through vertebral column)
What is the trigeminal nerve? The 5th cranial nerve,carries sensory and motor fibers,supplies sensation to the teeth and jaw,has motor branches that supply the muscles of mastication.
What are the 3 divisions of the Trigeminal nerve? The 1st(Upper) division is the Ophthalmic(eye and forehead). The 2nd is the maxillary division. The 3rd(lower) is the mandibular division.
What is a mandibular block? An injection that anesthetizes the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves- injected about midpoint of the ascending ramus of the mandible(the vertical posterior portion). This anesthetizes all mandibular teeth,chim, and lip on same side as well as half the
What is a Posterior Superior Alveolar Block? A block that anesthetizes the branches for the posterior portion of the maxillary alveolus.
What does the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) do? Regulates the internal organs (viscera) and other involuntary functions-homeostasis. Regulates BP,HR, breathing, body temp.,H2O balance,urinary bladder and digestive functions.
What are the 2 subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System(ANS)? Sympathetic/ Parasympathetic *oppose eachother* Sympathetic(fight or flight) Parasympathetic(resting/vegitative)
What does the Sympathetic nervous system do? Prepares body for Phys.Activity in response to stress. HR,BP,blood glucose go up. Exerts efforts through action of norepinepheine(adrinaline)
What are the sub-groupings of the sympathetic (adrenergic) effects of the ANS? *Alpha(a)- Vasoconstriction (arteries and veins) *Beta(b)- Big Organs *Beta 1(B1)- "1 heart" Increased Hr,conduction rate, and strength of contraction. *Beta 2(B2)- "2 lungs" Bronchodilation
What are the effects of the Parasympathetic nervous system? Slower HR,increased salivary secretion,increase activity of digestive tract.(vegetative state "couch potato") *exerts effects through chemical substance acetlycholine.
What drugs are anticholinergic? What are they used for? Atropine, glycopyrrolate (Robinul) They counteract Parasympathetic stimulation by reducing production of secretion it stimulates.
Why combine epinephrine with local anesthetic agents? Causes Vasoconstriction. Helps anesthetic last longer, Helps control bleeding
How do barbiturates affect the vital centers in the medulla and pons associated with ANS? They depress the vital centers, resulting in hypotension and respiratory depression
How does Ketamine affect the vital centers of the ANS? Stimulates them. Causes increase BP, and Pulse.
How many chambers are there in the heart? What are they? 4 Right atrium, right ventricle, Left atrium, left ventricle .
Where is the heart located? In the chest behind and slightly to the left of the sternum(aka breastbone). Cone-shaped, with apex directed down and to the left, while base is upward & to the right.
What is the heart made of? Myocardium, a unique muscle with ability to contract on its own, without nerve stimulation.
What is the order of blood flow through the heart? Blood comes up through inferior vena cava-down through superior vena cava into the right artium,tricuspid valve,right ventricle,pulmonary seminar valve,pulmonary arteries, lungs,pulmonary veins,left atrium, bicuspid valve(mitral),left ventricle,aortic sem
What is a myocardial infarction? Heart attack (Infaction- death of tissue from lack of blood supply)
What vessels carry oxygenated blood away from the heart? Arteries
What vessels carry Oxygen-depleted blood to the heart? Veins
Why are the pulmonary veins different from other veins? The pulmonary veins are the only veins in the body to carry oxygenated blood. They return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
What is a heart murmur? Back flow or turbulence that may be detected with a stethoscope. May happen if a valve is damaged by either disease or congenital defect.
What is ischemia? A condition when reduced oxygen supply damages the heartcelss but doesn't actually cause necrosis (death of cells).
What is angina pectoris, what causes it? What can relieve it? Chest pain, results from ischemia of myocardium. Relieved by rest or nitroglycerin
Cariac output Total amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in one minute, determined by multiplying stroke volume by heart rate
Bradycardia Heart rate below 60 beats/min
Trachycardia Heart rate greater than 100 beats/minute
What is the sinoatrial node(SA node)? The hearts pacemaker, located at junction between coronary sinus and right atrium. Microscopic collection of heart muscle fibers where cardiac rhythm originates.
Atria ventricular node (AV node) Located between atria and ventricles. Microscopic collection of heart muscle fibers involved in the electrical activity of the heart
Hypoxia Lack of oxygwn
What are the elements of a normal sinus rhythm on a cardiac monitor tracing? The P wave(atrial depolarization, QR(ventricular depolarizatuin)S(# of QRS/min represent HR), T wave- (ventricular repolarizarion)
Artery located in neck, easily palate when look for a pts pulse Common carotid
Created by: Eyernelson