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Geraud Chapter 5

TermDefinition
alleles an alternate form that a gene may have for a single trait
punnett square a tool to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring
hybrid an offspring that was given different genetic information for a trait from each parent
dominant describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait
recessive describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait
genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
homozygous describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait
heterozygous describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait
probability the mathematical chance that something will happen
heredity the passing of traits from parent to offspring
genetics the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
Gregor Mendel the father of genetics, first person to study how traits are passed
incomplete dominance production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygous parents
multiple alleles more than 2 alleles that result in many phenotypes
polygenic inheritance occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as human eye color
cystic fibrosis genetic disorder that affects the lungs and intestines
recessive genetic disorder genetic disorder that is recessive, need 2 alleles to have disorder
human blood types A, B, AB, O
pedigree a tool to trace a trait through a family, uses circles and squares
gender chromosomes X and Y
color blindness a sex-linked genetic disorder that affects males more, inability to see some colors
sex-linked genetic disorder genetic disorder that travels on X chromosome like color blindness
gene therapy the use of a virus to insert a human gene into someone suffering from a genetic disorder
genetic engineering biological and chemical methods of changing the arrangement of a gene's DNA to improve crop production or produce medicine
selective breeding selecting certain animals or plants to cross to get specific traits in the next generation
GMO genetically modified organism
argument against GMO foods no long term study of the effects on human health
Created by: geraud.aaron