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182 Chps 27,28,31,29

worktest questions for Unit 1

Which is the bacterial structure that acts as a selective barrier, allowing nutrients to enter the cell and wastes to leave the cell? A) cell wall B) plasma membrane C) nucleoid region D) capsule E) pili (27-1) B
Which of these is the most common compound in the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria? A) protein B) lignin C) cellulose D) lipopolysaccharide E) peptidoglycan (27-2) E
Penicillin is an antibiotic that inhibits enzymes from catalyzing the synthesis of peptidoglycan, so which prokaryotes should be most vulnerable to inhibition by penicillin? A) mycoplasmas B) archaea C) endospore-bearing bacteria D) gram-positive bacteria E) gram-negative bacteria (27-3) D
The genes for the sex pilus construction & for tetracycline resistance are located together on the same plasmid within a particular bacterium. If this bacterium readily performs conjugation involving a copy of this plasmid, then the result should be A) a transformed bacterium B) the production of endospores C) the loss of tetracycline resistance from this bacterium D) the spread of tetracycline res. to other bacteria in the habitat E) the temp. possession by this bacterium of a diploid genome (2 D
Which two structures play direct roles in permitting bacteria to adhere to each other, or to other surfaces? 1. capsules 2. endospores 3. fimbriae 4. plasmids 5. flagella A) 1 and 3 B) 3 and 5 C) 1 and 2 D) 2 and 3 E) 3 and 4 (27-5) A
Which of the following is composed almost entirely of peptidoglycan in a gram-positive prokaryotic cell? A) endospore B) sex pilus C) flagellum D) capsule E) cell wall (27-6) E
Not present in all bacteria, this cell covering enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of host organisms: A) flagellum B) capsule C) endospore D) cell wall E) sex pilus (27-7) B
If this structure connects the cytoplasm of two bacteria, one of these cells may gain new genetic material: A) flagellum B) endospore C) capsule D) sex pilus E) cell wall (27-8) D
Which of these statements about prokaryotes is correct? A) bacterial cells conjugate to mutually exchange genetic material B) genetic variation in bacteria is not known to occur, nor should it occur, because of their asexual mode of reproduction C) they divide by binary fission, w/o mitosis or meiosis D) their genetic material is confined within a nuclear envelope E) the persistence of bacteria throughout evolutionary time is due to their genetic homogeneity (27-9) C
An organism that obtains its energy from chemicals: 1. autotroph 2. heterotroph 3. phototroph 4. chemotroph A) 2 only B) 3 only C) 1 only D) 1 and 4 E) 4 only (27-10) E
An organism that obtains both carbon and energy by ingesting prey: 1. autotroph 2. heterotroph 3. phototroph 4. chemotroph A) 1,3,and 4 B) 4 only C) 1 and 3 D) 1 only E) 2 and 4 (27-11) E
An organism that relies on photons to excite electrons within its membranes: 1. autotroph 2. heterotroph 3. phototroph 4. chemotroph A) 2 and 4 B) 1 only C) 1 and 3 D) 3 only E) 1,3,and 4 (27-12) D
A prokaryote that obtains both energy and carbon as it decomposes dead organisms: 1. autotroph 2. heterotroph 3. phototroph 4. chemotroph A) 1,3,and 4 B) 1 only C) 1 and 3 D) 4 only E) 2 and 4 (27-13) E
Which of the following are responsible for many human diseases? A) photoheterotrophs B) chemoautotrophs C) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition D) parasitic chemoheterotrophs E) photoautotrophs (27-14) D
Which of the following use light energy to synthesize organic compounds from CO2? A) photoautotrophs B) parasitic chemoautotrophs C) photoheterotrophs D) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition E) chemoautotrophs (27-15) A
Which of the following are responsible for high levels of O2 in Earth's atmosphere? A) chemoautotrophs B) chemoheterotrophs that perform decomposition C) parasitic chemoheterotrophs D) photoheterotrophs E) photoautotrophs (27-16) E
Modes of obtaining nutrients, used by at least some bacteria, include all of the following except: A) photoautotrophy B) photoheterotrophy C) chemoheterotrophy D) chemoautotrophy E) heteroautotrophy (27-17) E
Only certain prokaryotes can perform nitrogen fixation, but nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes are not known to live inside animals. Thus, how do animals gain access to fixed nitrogen? A) They may breathe it in from air that has experienced lightning discharg B) They may ingest plants that harbor nitrogen fixers, or plants that absorbed fixed nitrogen from the soil C) They may ingest nitrogen fixers D) They may ingest other animals that did B or C E) B,C,and D (27-18) E
If archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria, then which of the following is a reasonable prediction? A) they DNA should have no introns B) they should lack cell walls C) Archaean ribosomes should be larger than typical prokaryotic ribosomes D) Archaean chromosomes should have no protein bonded to them E) Archaean DNA should be single-stranded (27-19 C
Which of the following traits do archaeans and bacteria share? 1. composition of the cell wall 2. presence of plasma membrane 3. lack of a nuclear envelope 4. identical rRNA sequences A) 2 and 3 B) 3 only C) 2 and 4 D) 1 and 3 E) 1 only (27-20) A
Assuming that each of these possesses a cell wall, which prokaryotes should be expected to be most strongly resistant to plasmolysis in hypertonic environments? A) extreme thermophiles B) nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules C) methanogens D) cyanobacteria E) extreme halophiles (27-21) E
If all prokaryotes on Earth suddenly vanished, which of the following would be the most likely and most direct result? A) the recycling of nutrients would be reduced B) human populations would thrive with no disease C) the number of organisms on Earth would decrease by 10-20% D) bacteriophage numbers would greatly increase E) no more pathogens on Earth (27-22) A
How can prokaryotes be considered to be more successful on Earth than humans? A) occupy more diverse habitats B) are much more numerous and have more biomass C) are more diverse in metabolism D) B and C E) A, B, and C (27-23) E
Many physicians administer antibiotics at the first sign of disease symptoms. Why can this practice cause more problems for these patients, and for others not yet infected? A) overuse can select for antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria B) particular patients may be allergic to it C) antibiotics may cause other side effects D) the antibiotic may kill viruses that had been keeping the bacteria in check E) antibiotics may interfere with the ability to identify the bacteria present (27-2 A
Broad-spectrum antibiotics inhibit the growth of most intestinal bacteria. Consequently, assuming that nothing is done to counter the reduction of intestinal bacteria, a hospital patient who is receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics is most likely to become A) unable to synthesize peptidoglycan B) unable to fix carbon dioxide C) deficient in certain vitamins D) antibiotic resistant E) unable to fix nitrogen (27-25) C
Protists are alike in that all are: A) symbionts B) monophyletic C) eukaryotic D) unicellular E) autotrophic (28-1) C
According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate? A) when a protoeukaryote engaged in a symbiotic relationship with a protobiont B) from engulfed, originally free-living prokaryotes C) by secondary endosymbiosis D) from infoldings of the plasma membrane, coupled with mutations of genes for proteins in energy-transfer reactions E) from the nuclear envelope folding outward and forming mitochondrial membranes (28-2) B
Which organisms represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic plastids found in eukaryotes? A) red algae B) cyanobacteria C) autotrophic euglenids D) diatoms E) dinoflagellates (28-3) B
Which group includes members that are important primary producers in ocean food webs, causes red tides that kill many fish, and may even be carnivorous? A) ciliates B) brown algae C) dinoflagellates D) golden algae E) apicomplexans (28-4) C
You are given an unknown organism. It is unicellular and heterotrophic. It is motile, using many short extensions of the cytoplasm. It has well-developed organelles and 3 nuclei, one large and two small. The organism is likely a member of which group? A) radiolarians B) ciliates C) slime molds D) kinetoplastids E) foraminiferans (28-5) B
Which process results in genetic recombination, but is separate from the process wherein the population size of Paramecium increases? A) mitotic division B) conjugation C) meiotic division D) budding E) binary fission (28-6) B
A large seaweed that floats freely on the surface of deep bodies of water should be expected to lack which of the following? A) bladders B) gel-forming polysaccharides C) thalli D) blades E) holdfasts (28-7) E
Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group? A) gymnamoebas B) entamoebas C) oomycetes D) amoeboid stage of cellular slime molds E) radiolarians and forams (28-8) E
Which of the following produce the dense glassy ooze found in certain areas of the deep-ocean floor? A) forams B) ciliates C) radiolarians D) dinoflagellates E) apicomplexans (28-9) C
A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group? A) foraminiferans B) ciliates C) gymnamoebas D) radiolarians E) diatoms (28-10) A
The largest seaweeds belong to which group? A) red algae B) green algae C) golden algae D) brown algae (28-11) D
The chloroplasts of land plants are thought to have been derived according to which evolutionary sequence? A) cyanobacteria --> green algae --> land plants B) cyanobacteria --> red algae --> green algae --> land plants C) cyanobacteria --> green algae --> fungi --> land plants D) red algae --> cyanobacteria --> land plants E) red algae --> brown algae --> green algae --> land plants (28-12) A
A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This alga probably belongs to which group? A) dinoflagellates B) golden algae C) brown algae D) red algae E) green algae (28-13) D
Green algae often differ from land plants in that some green algae: A) are heterotrophs B) have cell walls containing cellulose C) have alternation of generations D) are unicellular E) have plastids (28-14) D
Which taxon of eukaryotic organisms is thought to be directly ancestral to the plant kingdom? A) radiolarians B) green algae C) apicomplexans D) foraminiferans E) golden algae (28-15) B
Which pair of alternatives is highlighted by the life cycle of the cellular slime molds, such as Dictyostelium? A) diploid or haploid B) prokaryotic or eukaryotic C) autotroph or heterotroph D) plant or animal E) unicellular or multicellular (28-16) E
Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer? A) kinetoplastid B) diatom C) oomycete D) radiolarian E) apicomplexan (28-17) B
You are designing an artificial drug-delivery "cell" that can penetrate animal cells. Which of these protist structures should provide the most likely avenue for research along these lines? A) pseudopods B) mitosomes C) excavated feeding grooves D) nucleomorphs E) apical complex (28-18) E
Which of these are actual mutualistic partnerships that involve a protist and a host organism? A) dinoflagellates:reef-building coral animals B) algae:certain foraminiferans C) Trichomonas:humans D) cellulose-digesting gut protists:wood-eating termites E) all except C (28-19) E
Read paragraph in worktest 28 Which term best describes the symbiotic relationship of well-fed P. bursaria to their zoochlorellae? A) mutualistic B) parasitic C) commensal D) predatory E) pathogenic (28-20) A
Read paragraph in worktest 28 The motility that permits P. bursaria to move toward a light source is provided by: A) contractile vacuoles B) a single flagellum featuring the 9+2 pattern C) a single flagellum composed of the protein, flagellin D) many cilia E) pseudopods (28-21) D
Read paragraph in worktest 28 If the chloroplasts of the zoochlorellae are very similar to those foud in the photosynthetic cells of land plants, then Chlorella is probably what type of alga? A) green B) red C) golden D) brown (28-22) A
Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of: A) secondary endosymbiosis B) origin of the plastids from archaea C) budding of the plastids from the nuclear envelope D) fusion of plastids E) evolution from mitochondria (28-23) A
In life cycles with an alternation of generations, multicellular haloid forms alternate with: A) multicellular diploid forms B) multicellular polyploid forms C) unicellular haploid forms D) multicellular haploid forms E) unicellular diploid forms (28-24) A
Which protists are in the same eukaryotic "supergroup" as land plants? A) green algae B) brown algae C) red algae D) dinoflagellates E) A and C are both correct (28-25) E
When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter, what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter? A) increased oxygen levels B) soredia C) larger bacterial populations D) fungal enzymes E) fungal haustoria (31-2) D
The functional significance of porous septa in certain fungal hyphae is most similar to that represented by which pair of structures in animal cells and plant cells, respectively? A) desmosomes:tonoplasts B) tight junctions:plastids C) gap junctions:plasmodesmata D) flagella:central vacuoles E) centrioles:plastids (31-3) C
What do fungi and arthropods have in common? A) both groups are predominantly heterotrophs that ingest their food B) the haploid state is dominant in both groups C) both groups have cell walls D) the protective coats of both groups are made of chitin E) both groups are commonly coenocytic (31-4 D
The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are: A) composed of hyphae B) usually underground C) referred to as a mycelium D) A and B E) A, B, and C (31-5) E
Both fungus-farming ants and their fungi can synthesize the same structural polysaccharide from the beta-glucose. What is this polysaccharide? A) lignin B) cellulose C) chitin D) amylopectin E) glycogen (31-6) C
Which of the following vary tremendously from each other in morphology and belong to several fungal phyla? A) ascomycetes B) ergot fungi C) arbuscular mycorrhizae D) lichens E) club fungi (31-7) D
In most fungi, karyogamy does not immediately follow plasmogamy, which consequently: A) is strong support for the claim that fungi are not truly eukaryotic B) means that sexual reproduction can occur in specialized structures C) results in multiple diploid nuclei per cell D) results in heterokaryotic or dikaryotic cells E) allows fungi to reproduce asexually most of the time (31-8) D
Which of the following statements is true of deuteromycetes? A) they are the group that includes molds, yeasts, and lichens B) they represent the phylum in which all the fungal components of lichens are classified C) they include the imperfect fungi that lack hyphae D) they are the 2nd of 5 fungal phyla to have evolved E) they are the group of fungi that have no known sexual stage (31-9) E
For mycelia described as heterokaryons or as being dikaryotic, which process has already occured, and which process has not yet occured? A) karyogamy, germination B) plasmogamy, genetic recombination C) meiosis, mitosis D) germination, mitosis E) germination, plasmogamy (31-10) B
This phylum formerly included the members of the new phylum Glomeromycota: A) Ascomycota B) Basidiomycota C) Zygomycota D) Chytridiomycota E) Glomeromycota (31-11) C
Members of this phylum produce two kinds of haploid spores, one kind being asexually produced conidia: A) Ascomycota B) Chytridiomycota C) Basidiomycota D) Zygomycota E) Glomeromycota (31-12) A
This phylum contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs: A) Zygomycota B) Ascomycota C) Chytridiomycota D) Glomeromycota E) Basidiomycota (31-13) E
Members of this phylum form arbuscular mycorrhizae: A) Basidiomycota B) Glomeromycota C) Ascomycota D) Chytridiomycota E) Zygomycota (31-14) B
Zygosporangia are to zygomycetes as basidia are to: A) club fungi B) chytrids C) basal fungi D) sac fungi E) basidiospores (31-15) A
The ascomycetes get their name from which aspect of their life cycle? A) asexual spore production B) vegetative growth form C) sexual structures D) type of vegetative mycelium E) shape of the spore (31-16) C
Which of these paired fungal structures are structurally and functionally most alike? A) sporangia and hyphae B) conidia and basidiocarps C) soredia and gills D) zoospores and mycelia E) haustoria and arbuscules (31-17) E
Which of these is a fungal structure that is usually associated with asexual reproduction? A) conidiophore B) zygosporangium C) antheridium D) basidium E) ascus (31-18) A
Mushrooms with gills have meiotically produced spores located in or on: A) conidiophores B) basidia C) zygosporangia D) asci E) soredia (31-19) B
A fungal spore germinates, giving rise to a mycelium that grows outward into the soil surrounding the site where the spore originally landed. Which of these accounts for the fungal movement, as described here? A) mycelial flagella B) alternation of generations C) breezes distributing spores D) karyogamy E) cytoplasmic streaming in hyphae (31-20) E
Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, that inhibit the growth of bacteria, are known as: A) hallucinogens B) antibiotics C) antigens D) aflatoxins E) antibodies (31-23) B
In both lichens and mycorrhizae, what does the fungal partner provide to its photosynthetic partner? A) fixed nitrogen B) antibiotics C) protection from harmful UV D) water and minerals E) carbohydrates (31-24) D
The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungi are considered: A) the beginning stages of the formation of soil B) parasitic C) commensal D) harmful to the plant partner E) mutualistic (31-25) E
Which of the following best describes the physical relationship of the partners involved in lichens? A) Algal cells and fungal cells mix together without any apparent structure B) photosynthetic cells are surrounded by fungal hyphae C) the fungi grow on rocks and trees are covered by algae D) lichen cells are enclosed within fungal cells E) fungal cells are enclosed within algal cells (31-26) B
All fungi share which of the following characteristics? A) symbiotic B) pathogenic C) heterotrophic D) act as decomposers E) flagellated (31-27) C
Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi? A) slime molds B) animals C) vascular plants D) mosses E) brown algae B
The following are common to both charophytes and land plants except: A) cellulose B) sporopollenin C) lignin D) chlorophyll a E) chlorophyll b (29-1) C
In animal cells and the meristem cells of land plants, the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis. This doesn't occur in the cells of most protists and fungi. Which group of organisms should feature mitosis similar to land plants? A) multicellular green algae B) cyanobacteria C) unicellular green algae D) red algae E) charophytes (29-2) E
Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No charophytes exhibit it. The correct interpretation of these observations is that: A) plants evolved alt. of gen. independently of green algae B) no evidence to indicate land plants evolved from alga C) alt. of gen. not beneficial to charophytes D) land plants evolved directly from alt. of gen. green algae E) charophytes not related to green algae or land plants (29-3) A
Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"? A) Viridiplantae B) Plantae C) Charophycea D) Pterophyta E) Bryophyta (29-4) B
Which event during the evolution of land plants probably made the synthesis of secondary compounds most beneficial? A) association of land plant roots with fungi B) greenhouse effect present throughout Devonian period C) rise of wind pollution D) rise of herbivory E) reverse-greenhouse effect during Carboniferious period (29-5) D
Protection from predators: A) tracheids and phloem B) alternation of generations C) secondary compounds D) cuticle (29-6) C
Protection from desiccation: A) secondary compounds B) alternation of generations C) cuticle D) tracheids and phloem (29-7) C
Transport of water, minerals, and nutrients: A) cuticle B) secondary compounds C) alternation of generations D) tracheids and phloem (29-8) D
Which of the following taxa includes the largest amount of genetic diversity among plantlike organisms? A) Charophyceae B) Viridiplantae C) Embryophyta D) Tracheophyta E) Plantae (29-9) B
Plant spores are produced directly by: A) gametes B) gametangia C) gametophytes D) sporophytes E) seeds (29-10) D
Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction? A) gametangia protect gametes from excess water B) eggs and sperm of bryophytes swim toward one another C) both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia D) bryophytes are limited to asexual reproduction E) "embryophytes" are small since in early developmental stage (29-11) C
The leaflike appendages of moss gametophytes may be one- to two-cell-layers thick. Which of these is least likely to be found associated with such appendages? A) peroxisomes B) cuticle C) stomata D) phenolics E) rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes (29-12) C
A fungal infection damages all peristomes, preventing them from performing their function. Which process will be directly hindered as a result? A) lengthening of rhizoids B) growth of the protonema C) ability of sperm to locate eggs D) growth of the sporophyte E) broadcast of spores (29-13) E
Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other. One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not. Compared to the pond with Sphagnum, the pond lacking the moss mat should have: A) reduced rates of decomposition B) less-acidic water C) reduced oxygen content D) lower numbers of bacteria (29-14) B
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition? A) bryophyte B) fern C) horsetail D) A and C E) A, B, and C (29-15) A
The following characteristics all helped seedless plants become better adapted to land except: A) a branched sporophyte B) a dominant gametophyte C) vascular tissue D) stomata on leaves E) a waxy cuticle (29-16) B
A new species has flagellated sperm, xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte generations with the sporophyte dominant and no seeds. This plant is closely related to: A) gymnosperms B) charophytes C) flowering plants D) mosses E) ferns (29-17) E
Which of the following types of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits? A) lycophytes B) whisk ferns C) pine trees D) tree ferns E) horsetails (29-18) C
If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite, then it: A) must be diploid B) has lost need for sporophyte generation C) belongs to a homosporous species D) is not a fern; fern gametophytes are always male or female E) has antheridia and archegonia in a single sex organ (29-19) C
If humans had been present to build log structures during the Carboniferous period which plant type(s) would have been suitable sources of logs? A) horsetails and bryophytes B) charophytes, bryophytes, and gymnosperms C) lycophytes and bryophytes D) whisk ferns and epiphytes E) ferns, horsetails, and lycophytes (29-20) E
Which of the following is true of seedless vascular plants? A) extant are larger then the extinct varieties B) whole forests were dominated by them during the Carboniferous period C) Sphagnum is an economically/ecologically important example D) gametophyte is dominant generation E) produce many spores that are the same as seeds (29-21) B
Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae? A) formation of a cell plate during cytokinesis B) sexual reproduction C) cellulose in cell walls D) alternation of multicellular generations E) chlorophyll b (29-22) D
In plants, which of the following are produced by meiosis? A) diploid spores B) haploid gametes C) haploid sporophyte D) diploid gametes E) haploid spores (29-23) E
Microphylls are characteristic of which type of plants? A) liverworts B) mosses C) lycophytes D) hornworts E) ferns (29-24) C
Identify each of the following as haploid of diploid A) sporophyte B) spore C) gametophyte D) zygote E) sperm (29-25) diploid, haploid, haploid, diploid, haploid
Which of the following do all fungi have in common? A) absorption of nutrients B) sexual life cycle C) meiosis in basidia D) coenocytic hyphae E) symbiosis with algae (31-1) A
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