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Lymphatic/immune sys

Week 2 revision on the lymphatic/ immune system 9/03/17

The lymphatic system - Protects us against disease - Lymphatic system cells respond to: - Environmental Pathogens ( e.g bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) - Toxins - Abnormal body cells, such as cancers
Functions - Drainage of interstitial fluid - Transporting dietary lipids and lipid soluble vitamins (A,D,E an K) - facilitation of the immune response (i.e production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes)
Function of the lymphatic system To produce, maintain, and distribute lymphocytes
What is the function of lymphocytes? - Detects problems - Travel into site of inquiry or infection
Where are lymphocytes found? - lymphocytes are found - In lymphoid tissues (e.g, tonsils) - Lymphoid organs (e.g, spleen, thymus) - In red bone marrow
What are the 3 types of Lymphocytes? - T cell: Thymus-dependent - B cell: Bone marrow-derived - NK cells: Natural killer cells
Lymphocyte Circulation From blood to interstitial fluid through capillaries returns to venous blood through lymphatic vessels
The circulation of fluids From blood plasma to lymph and back to the nervous system, transports hormones, nutrients, and waste product
What is a Lymphatic vessel? - Are the vessels that carry lymph - Lymphatic systems begins with the smallest vessels - lymphatic capillaries (terminal lymphatics)
What is immunity? The ability to resist infection and disease
What tells and tissues are involved in the production of immunity? All cells and tissues are involved in production of immunity, not just the lymphatic ones
What are nonspecific defences? Block or attack any potential infectious organisms, cannot distinguish one attack from other
what are the seven major categories of innate (nonspecific) immunity? 1. physical barrier 2. Phagocytes 3. Immune surveillance 4. Interferons 5. Complement 6. Inflammatory response 7. Fever
What are specific defences? - Lymphocytes - Part of the immune response - Identify, attack, and develop immunity to a specific pathogen
What are the organisations of the lymphatic system? Lymph - fluid similar to plasma, does not have plasma proteins Lymphatic vessels - Carry lymph from peripheral tissue to the venous system Lymphoid tissues & organs Lymphocytes, phagocytes, and other immune systems cells
What are lymphatic capillaries? Lymphatic capillaries serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid.
Lymphatic capillary structure Endothelial cells loosely bound together with over lap. This structure helps to let fluid in, but not out.
How do lymphatic capillaries work? The overlap acts as one-way valve - Allows fluid, solute, viruses, and bacteria to enter - Prevents return to intercellular space
What is the fluid inside lymphatic capillaries called? Lymph
What are Lacteals? Are special lymphatic capillaries in small intestine. They transport lipids from digestive tract
In what ways to lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries? 1. Start as pockets rather than dudes 2. Have larger diameters 3. Have thinner walls 4. Flat or irregular outline in sectional view
What is the circulation of the lymphatic system? Blood plasma (from capillaries) —> Interstitial/tissue fluid —> Lymphatic capillary —> Lymph vessels, trunks & ducts —> Blood plasma ( vein at base of neck)
What is the structures of lymph vessels? -Thin walls - Resemble veins; have more valves - Have Lymph nodes at intervals - Respiratory & muscular pumps promote flow of lymph towards large veins/heart
What are the 2 types of lymphatic vessels and what is the difference? 1. Superficial lympahtics 2. The deep lymphatics - Are the larger vessels that accompany deep arteries and veins
Where are lymphatic vessels located? - Skin - Mucous membranes - Serous membranes lining body cavities
What are the primary lymphatic organs? -Red bone marrow - Thymus
What are the secondary lymphatic organs? - Spleen - Lymph nodes - Appendix
What are the diffuse lymphatic tissue? Tonsils, adenoids & Peyer’s patches
What is the Thymus Gland? -Found in the mediastinum above the heart - Large in infancy and atrophies but functional in adulthood - Thymus makes thymosin hormones for development and maturation of T cells - T cells mature here
What are lymph nodes? - Lymph nodes are surrounded by a connective tissue capsule - Each compartment or lobule is made up of a framework of reticular cell (reticulocytes) - Reticular cells phagocytise unwanted substances - B Lymphocytes produce antibodies - Filter Lymph
What is a spleen? - Found left side of abdominal cavity below the diaphragm - Red pulp - removes worn out platelets, RBC and stores platelets - Produces RBC in the foetus - White pulp - immune function removes blood borne pathogens
What does MALT stand for? mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues
What are tonsils? - Surround the opening to the respiratory and digestive tracts Five tonsils 2 palatine (either side of the oral cavity), 2 lingual (at the base of the tongue,)1 pharyngeal or adenoid (on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx) - Tonsils filter air
Created by: gemma99



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