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micro exam 2

chapters 10,11,12,13(contact)

what is the most important virulence factor for Corynebacterium diphtheria? toxin production
which bacterial infection needs to be ruled out in a patient with fever and purplish spots on skin? (what are you testing for?) Neisseria meningitis
what is the main reason that sore throats caused by Streptococcus pyogenes need to be treated with antibiotics? prevent risk of rheumatic fever
what is the purpose of the M protein found in Streptococcus pyogenes? blocks phagocytosis by white blood cells (hides it)
culture of sputum grew on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar only. what bacteria is causing this patient's pneumonia? Legionella pneumophilia
what toxin produced by bacteria is the most toxic substance produced naturally? Botulism toxin
name the one bacteria that does not have Peptidoglycan in its cell wall. Chlamydia psittaci
briefly describe the pathology of food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus. ingestion of toxin produced by bacteria
how is Salmonellosis usually transmitted? fecal oral transmission
what pathogen causes a characteristic "rice water stool"? Vibrio cholerae
what is the name of the bacteria that causes stomach ulcers? Helicobacter pylori
name the bacteria that is a common cause of diarrhea with mild symptoms. Campylobacter jejuni G- comma/s-shaped
name the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Yersinia pestis
what pathogens can cause Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome? coli O157:H7 and species of Shigella
what condition should a person planning an adventure travel vacation be concerned about? Leptospira interrogans
what is the clinical name of the rash caused by the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi? Erythema migrans (bullseye)
what is the common name for inhalation anthrax? Woolsorter's Disease
what organism played an important role in history by causing the "black death"? Yersinia pestis G- bacillus
what is the name of the stain used in diagnosing disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? acid fast stain
what is the standard treatment for Whooping Cough? supportive nursing care
name the hallmark symptom caused by Salmonella typhi. fever
what is the most significant virulence factor for Streptococcus pneumoniae? capsule
a patient with a nonprodcutive cough has a diffuse pattern on their chest x-ray. what condition do you suspect? Mycoplasma pneumonia
name the bacteria that grows in soft cheese in refrigerator temperatures. Listeria monocytogenes
armadillos and humans are the only hosts for infection caused what microbe? Mycobacterium leprae
what is a differential diagnosis? contrasting and deciding between several diseases that have the same or similar symptoms
what is an exclusion diagnosis? diagnosis reached by process of elimination
what is a diagnosis? determining the nature and cause of the disease
what is a prognosis? probable course and outcome of the disease
what is etiology? the cause of the patient's illness (bacteria on tick, not tick)
what causes strep throat? Streptococcus pyogenes G+ diplococci (short chains)
what is hemolysis? rupture of red blood cells in blood agar
beta hemolysis clear appearance around colony
alpha hemolysis dark green appearance around colony
nonhemolytic no change in agar around colony
what is the purpose of the F protein found in Streptococcus pyogenes? attachment in the throat
what is chemotaxis? movement toward chemical
what does pyrogenic mean? fever-causing
what are possible complications from Streptococcus pyogenes? scarlet fever rheumatic fever glomerulonephritis
what is the number one cause of heart disease in children? rheumatic fever
what does glomerulonephritis affect? kidneys
name two antibiotics that can be used to treat strep throat. penicillin erythromycin
what causes diphtheria? Corynebacterium diphtheria G+ bacilli
what does Corynebacterium diphtheria resemble? Chinese characters
what does Streptococcus pyogenes grow on? blood agar with CO2
what does Corynebacterium diphtheria grow on? Loeffler's medium with O2
what are the components of the AB subunits present in Corynebacterium diphtheria? A: active unit B: binding unit both must be present to do any damage
if the diphtheria toxin gets into the bloodstream, what is at risk for damage? heart kidney brain nerves
what is a pseudomembrane? a false membrane in the throat
what causes Whooping Cough? Bordetella pertussis G- coccobascillus
what does Bordetella pertussis grow on? Bordet-Gengou (potato-glycerol-blood agar) with O2
what is another name for Whooping Cough? 100 day cough
what is the HIB vaccine? Haemophilus influenzae type B
what causes Meningococcal Meningitis? Neisseria meningitidis G- diplococcus
what does Meningococcal Meningitis affect? respiratory tract blood stream meninges cerebrospinal fluid
what is another cause for meningitis? Haemophilus influenzae G- rod
what does Haemophilus influenzae grow on? chocolate agar
what causes TB? Mycobacterium tuberculosis acid fast rod
what specific stains are needed to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis? Ziehl-Neelson Acid Fast Stain
what does Mycobacterium tuberculosis grow on? Lowenstein-Jensen medium
what is the most widely distributed pathogen in the US that afflict humans? Mycobacterium tuberculosis
what is one cause of acute bacterial pneumonia that is also normal flora of the throat? Streptococcus pneumonia G+ cocci
what causes atypical pneumonia? Mycoplasma pneumonia tiny simple prokaryotes
what is another name for atypical pneumonia? walking pneumonia
what causes Legionnaire's disease? Legionella pneumophilia G- type rod
what does Legionella pneumophilia grow on? buffered charcoal yeast extract agar
what causes Q Fever? Coxiella burnetii G- parasite
what causes Parrot Fever? Chlamydia psittaci resemble G-
how does Chlamydia psittaci grow? only within another cell
what does gaster mean? stomach
what is the structural defense of the digestive system? epithelial cells covering the surfaces of organs
what is the mechanical defense of the digestive system? chewing and movement of intestine
what is the biochemical defense of the digestive system? acid production in stomach and bile in the small intestine
what is the nonspecific interior defense of the digestive system? inflammatory response of the phagocytic cells
when does the specific immune response start? 5-7 days after the pathogen appears
why is there very few bacteria in the upper small intestine? flushing of small intestine by digestive juices
how much of feces is made up of bacteria? 1/3
what kills 1 in 5 children worldwide? diarrhea
botulism food poisoning anaerobic G+ rod spores
what is the main symptom of botulism food poisoning? flaccid paralysis
what is hypotonia? decreased muscle tone
what is the treatment recommended for foodborne botulism? antitoxin
where is wound botulism most commonly found? in patients using IV drugs/dirty needles
Staphylococcus food poisoning grow at room temperature produce toxin in food
Clostridium perfringens anaerobic G+ rod non-motile spores
what causes typhoid fever/enteric fever? Salmonella typhi
what is the only natural host for Salmonella typhi? humans
how does Salmonella typhi spread? fecal oral transmission from contaminated water or food
what causes Salmonellosis? bacteria of the genus Salmonella found in small turtles, bearded dragon pets, chickens, and rats
what are the two main symptoms of Salmonellosis? diarrhea abdominal pain
what causes Shigellosis/bacterial dysentery? bacteria of the genus Shigella
what is Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome? kidney-failure-related death caused by Shiga toxin
what is an enterotoxin? toxin produced in or affecting the intestine
where is Shigellosis most commonly found? in day cares, child and elderly, where subjects where diapers
what is needed in order to return to society for Shigellosis patients? two negative fecal cultures within 48 hours after diarrhea stops
what causes Cholera? Vibrio cholerae
what is a pandemic? multiple epidemics spanning multiple areas
what is an epidemic? widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in one area
what is needed for successful oral rehydration in patients suffering from diarrhea? balanced salt solution (saline)
what causes E. coli? Escherichia coli G-
what is Escherichia coli thought to be the cause of? common traveler's diarrhea turkey trots Montezuma's revenge
what strain of E. coli is most featured on the news for causing illness? O157:H7
what causes gastric ulcers? Helicobacter pylori G- curved rod motile
what causes Listeriosis? Listeria monocytogenes G+ rod motile facultative
where is Listeriosis most commonly found? cold cuts soft cheeses
what does facultative mean? can grow with or without oxygen
what causes anthrax? Bacillus anthracis G+ bacillus aerobic spores
what does enzootic mean? found in animal population specifically hooved animals
what does endemic mean? always present at the same level
what are the three types of anthrax that cause illness to humans? inhalation intestinal cutaneous
inhalation anthrax endospores are inhaled and travel to lungs causes pneumonia
intestinal anthrax endospores are ingested and germinate in the intestine
cutaneous anthrax endospores land on skin where there is a breech in the barrier
what causes tetanus? Clostridium tetani G+ bacillus anaerobic spores
what is another name for Clostridium tetani? lock jaw
what causes gas gangrene? Clostridium perfingens G+ bacillus anaerobic spores capsule
what is a hyperbaric chamber? increased amounts of oxygen used to kill bacteria
what causes leptospirosis? Leptospira interrogans G- spirochete aerobic
what is a zoonosis? disease of animals that can spread to humans
what animal carries Yersinia pestis? fleas
what shape does Yersinia pestis resemble? safety pin
what is the transmission of bubonic plague? flea to human
what is the transmission of pneumonic plague? human to human
what causes tuleremia? Francisella tularenis G- bacillus aerobic capsule
what animal carries Francisella tularenis? ticks
what is another name for Francisella tularenis? rabbit fever
what animal carries Borrelia burgdorferi? deer tick
what causes lyme disease? Borrelia burgdoferi
what causes leprosy? Mycobacterium leprae acid fast rod
what is another name for leprosy? Hansen's disease
how is Mycobacterium leprae spread? nasal secretions from human to human
where does Mycobacterium leprae grow? footpads and skin of armadillos
what causes impetigo? Staphylococcus aureus G+ cocci
what is an abscess? pus-filled lesion
what is a boil? pus-filled pocket under skin
what is a carbuncle? group of connected abscesses
what is MRSA? multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
what two contact diseases does Staphylococcus aureus cause? scalded skin syndrome toxic shock syndrome



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