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AICE Biology

Cell cycle and genetic control

How does the structure of DNA differ between a dividing and non dividing cell? non dividing cells: DNA is slender, activity changes, gene turns on and off.
What 2 things does a chromosomes consist of? DNA and protein
What is length of DNA that codes for a specific function or structure? Gene
What is a telomere? A compound structure at the end of a chromosome, caps at the end of each strand of DNA which protects chromosomes.
When are identical sister chromatids formed? S phase of interphase
What is the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin? Euchromatin: chromosome material that does not strain strongly except during cell division, rep. major genes. Heterochromatin: chromosome material of diff. density from normal, in which genes is modified.
What are two main things that happen during interphase? S phase: copies DNA, proteins package of DNA, more cell membrane material. G phase: organelles divide, more ribosome
When does DNA replication occur? interphase
When does protein synthesis occur? S phase interphase
When does cell growth occur? constantly but in interphase
How is a multinucleate cell formed? By the fusion of multiple cells to form one much bigger cell (syncytium) and repeated nuclear division without cytokinesis forming cells (coenocytes)
What are stem cells and where there are they found? an undifferentiated cell of a mulitcellular organism that is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type. in tissue like liver and brain.
What are equivalent of stem cells? meristematic tissue and cambium.
Why must replication occur before a cell divides? B/C 2 strands of DNA molecule have complementary base pairs, the nucleotide sequence of each stand automatically supplies the information needed to produce its partner.
What is meant by the term 'semi- conservative' replication? 1/2 new and 1/2 old Dna helix
What does DNA polymerase? enzyme that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides.
What does DNA ligase? facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.
What is an activated nucleotide? nucleotide in the nucleus with 2 phosphate.
Does replication occur in the same direction for both strands of DNA? No, they go opposite directions.
What are the functions of telomeres? to protect ends of chromosomes and prevent one chromosome form binding to another.
What does telomerase do? Elongates the chromosomes and effects aging. Adds nucleotides to telomeres.
What are the five functions of mitosis? Growth of an organism, repair tissue, replacement, cell division, and production of genetically identical cells.
What is tissue? any of distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
If daughter cells are not identical to parent cells, what might the immune system do? Immune system will attack and non identical cells and get rid of them. hurting the body
What do the terms 'clone' and 'vegetative propagation' mean? Clone: an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells produced asexually which is genetically identical to ancestor. Vegetative propagation: asexual reproduction of a plant, only one plant is involved.
What can uncontrolled cell growth result in? a tumor which can turn into cancer.
How do cells have different functions and structures? different genes which give specific directions
The difference between cytokineses for plant and animal cells? Animal: cleavage is formed first in middle of cell then it deepens till the membrane and cell divides. Plant: row of vesicles develops.
What do spindle fibers do? form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell. They move chromosomes to poles form the middle.
Which organelle related to cell division do animal cells have that plant cells do not? centrioles
What is root cap? protects the growing root tip
What is meristematic area? above root cap
What is zone of elongation? in the middle
What is zone of differentiation? at the top
The difference between a gene and a polypeptide? Gene: basic physical and functional unit of heredity polypeptide: linear organic polymer, large # of amino acid residues bonded together in a chain.
What does coded mean in terms of DNA and primary structure of a protein? the sequence in it that make the protein, DNA has specific activity.
What is gene mutation? causes a single nucleotide base substitution, insertion, or deletion of the genetic material.
Primary structure determines shape and function
What is transcription the first step of gene expression, particular segment of DNA is copied into mRNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase
What is translation mRNA is translated into proteins.
Created by: jcore