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AICE Biology

Homeostasis and Kidney

What are the 2 info transfers Nerves (electrical impulses) Hormones (chemical messengers in blood)
The 3 factors for homeostasis Temperature, water potential, concentration of glucose
Effect of temperature low= slows down metabolism high= denatures proteins
effect of water potential water gain or loss by osmosis
effect of concentration of glucose fuel for respiration. too little= no ATP too much= change in water potential
What is negative feedback loop used to maintain homeostatic equilibrium. Decrease of parameter, wants it to stop. Rise in parameter results in a rxn pathway that decreases parameter.
What is positive feedback Very few instances. Does not keep homeostasis. Will keep a parameter increasing or decreasing in single direction
Excretion Removal of unwanted waste product. Many metabolic rxns in body produce this waste.
What are the 2 major excretory products urea and carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is produced produced continuously by aerobically respiring cells.
How is CO2 transported via blood
Urea is produced produced in liver from excess amino acids
how is urea transported transported to kidneys, dissolved in water and excreted as urine.
what is Deamination Excess protein which cannot be stored.
Where does this occur and what happens with deamination In liver cells. amine group (-NH2) of amino acid is removed w/ a H atom to produce ammonia (NH3).
What happens to remainder of amino acids it is a keto acid and it may go to the Kerbs cycle and be respired converted to glucose or stored as glycogen.
What does urea come from ammonia
What is urea the main nitrogenous excretory product of humans.
Kidneys receive blood from renal artery
kidneys returns blood to renal vein
What is the ureter narrow tube which carries urine from bladder to outside the body.
what is the urethra single tube that carries urine from bladder to outside the body
What are the three main areas of the kideny capsule, cortex, medulla
what is the capsule tough outer covering
what is the cortex outer portion of kidney
what is the medulla central area of kidney
glomerulus is supplied with blood from what and that becomes renal artery which becomes afferent arteriole
what is the efferent arteriole capillaries which lead off to form a network of capillaries which are close to nephron.
The 2 stage process to making urine 1. ultrafiltration small mole. out of blood and into the bowman's capsule. 2. reabsorption by taking back any useful mole. form fluid in nephron.
What is selective reabsorption when only certain substances are reabsorbed.
what is the glomerular filtration rate rate at which fluid filters from the blood in glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule
What is osmoregulation the control of water potential of body fluids
What does brain part does osmoregulation involve the hypothalamus
what are the specialized sensory neurons called in hypothalamus osmoreceptors
What adaptations do cuboidal epithelial cells have microvilli, tight junctions, a lot of mitochondria, and co transporter proteins
What are microvilli they increase the surface area of cuboidal epithelial cells of inner surface by facing the lumen
What purpose does tight junctions of cuboidal epithelial cells serve they hold the adjacent cells together so fluid cannot pass between the cells. all substances that are re absorbed must go through the cell.
what is the purpose of having a lot of mitochondria in the cuboidal epithelial cells they provide energy for Na+-K+ pump proteins in outer membranes of cells.
what purpose do co transporter proteins serve in cuboidal epithelial cells they face the lumen and help with transport of substances.
Descending limb of loop of henle = water escaping
ascending limb of loop henle= water cannot escape
What is ADH antidiuretic hormone and it is a 9 amino acid peptide hormone.
What is the effect of ADH it reduces the loss of water in urine by making kidneys reabsorb the maximum amount of water.
Created by: jcore