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Week 7 Diversity

bio 1100

TermDefinition
Evolutionary tree's _____ show which groups are more primitive or advanced. Do not
Evolutionary trees reveal the evolutionary history of species and the sequence of speciation events that give rise to them.
Clade a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor.
Sister Taxa Closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.
Basal Taxon Directly connected to ancestral lineage, oldest species.
Branch point Where lineages diverge.
Polytomy An unresolved pattern of divergence.
3 domains of life Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya.
Domain Archaea Lack membrane bound organelles, don't have a real nucleus, live in extreme environmental conditions, resistant to traditional antibiotics.
Domain Bacteria Lack membrane bound organelles, don't have a real nucleus.
Domain Eukarya have membrane bound organelles, including a nuclear envelope.
Taxonomical Catagories Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Do koalas prefer chocolate or fruit generally speaking.
Domain Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya.
Kingdom Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia.
Domain Eukarya Unicellular -> Protist. Multicellular -> Autotrophs -> Kingdom Plantae OR Multicellular -> Heterotrophs and if they ingest food they are kingdom animalia, if they absorb food they are kingdom fungi.
Yeast is a Unicellular fungus
Algae is a Multicellular protist
Animal-like protists Some protists, such as Trichomonas Vaginalis shown here, move around and hunt for prey like an animal
Fungi-like Protists Some protists, such as the plasmodial slime mold shown here, live as heterotrophs and form sheet like colonies of cells like a fungus.
Plant-Like Protists Some protists, such as the kelp forest shwon here, are multi cellular and photosynthetic like a plant.
Photosynthetic groups Plants (land), Algae (aquatic), Cyanobacteria (aquatic-pond)
Protists are an important component of Plankton
Anemone Protects Dinoflagellate and Clown fish but also gives food leftovers to Clown Fish
Clown fish Urine of clown fish has high concentration of ammonia that Dinoflagellate converts to protein, also cleans anemone.
DinoFlagellate Protist that live in between the cells of the anemone, produces sugars through photosynthesis that feeds the anemone,
Cocci Spherical bacteria
Bacilli Rod Shaped bacteria
Spirilli Spiral shaped bacteria
Mutualistic Symbiosis Bacteria Thousands of species of bacteria live in the intestines of animals helping in digestion and protection.
Photosynthesis Bacteria Cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to produce sugars and release oxygen.
Parasitic symbiosis bacteria Bacteria produce the majority of infectious diseases in humans
Nitrogen Fixation and decomposition step 1 Nitrogen gas is "fixed" by soil-dwelling bacteria, producing ammonia and other compounds containing nitrogen.
Nitrogen Fixation and decomposition step 2 The nitrogen compounds are further modified by other bacterias into a form that can be taken up by plants and used to build proteins.
Nitrogen Fixation and decomposition step 3 Nitrogen moves through the food chain as organisms eat plants and then are themselves eaten.
Nitrogen Fixation and decomposition step 4 Animals wastes and dead animals and plants are broken down by soil bacteria that convert the nitrogen in the tissue back into nitrogen gas.
Nitrogen is necessary to build all _______, the components of every _______molecule Amino Acids, Protein.
For nitrogen the most important reservoir is ________ Atmosphere.
Protists Disease causing microbes
Malaria a Protist-Caused Illness Step 1 Following the bite of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, malaria-causing protists take up residence in healthy red blood cells.
Malaria a Protist-Caused Illness Step 2 Once inside a red blood cell, Plasmodium cells modify the cells, surface proteins, making it difficult for the immune system to fight the malarial infection.
Chitin Makes fungi and plant cell walls
Peptidoglycan make bacteria cell walls
Cellulose Make plant cell walls
Heterotrophic An organisms that cannot fix carbon from inorganic sources but uses organic carbon for growth.
Autotrophic An organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions.
Decomposers An organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.
Mutualist Organism that benefits from a relationship with another organism that benefits from same relationship.
Parasits An organism that lives in or on another organism and benefits by deriving nutrients at the hosts expense.
Structure and ecological role of Bacteria Capsule, Cell Wall, Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, Chromosome, Plasmid, Pili, Ribosomes, Flagellum, help difestion in intestines, cyanobacteria = photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and some bacteria cause infectious disease.
Structure and ecological role of Archaea Basically same as Bacteria except unicellular, without cell walls, produces slime mold (as a decomposer) and parasitic in the sense they produce malaria mutualistic role in anemones, photosynthetic role in algae
Structure and ecological role of Fungi Hyphae, cell wall, root hair, plasma membrane
Structure and ecological role of Protists producing 70-80% of worlds oxygen, being a main food source for aquatic animals and a major decomposing agent of dead material. Unicellular, and multicellular that contain a nucleus enclosed in a membrane
Fungi are decomposers or Symbionts, meaning? Fungi acquire energy by breaking down the tissues of dead organisms or by absorbing nutrients from living organisms.
Fungi are Sessile, meaning? Fungi are anchored to the organic material on which they feed.
Fungi have cell walls made of _______ Chitin.
Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizal fungi grow in association with the roots of plants, receiving sugar from the plant while transferring nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil to the plant.
Protists are All eukaryotes that are not plants, animals or fungi
Created by: Joeyyip13